Brazilian singles xx

{SELL} HUGE DESTASH! CHEAP PRICES AND GREAT ITEMS! Come take a look, you know you want to...

2020.11.11 07:38 BaconWrappedBob {SELL} HUGE DESTASH! CHEAP PRICES AND GREAT ITEMS! Come take a look, you know you want to...

My name is BaconWrappedBob and I have a SERIOUS beauty box subscription addiction and a penchant for allergies. It is time for a major destash:/
Everything is NEW! Selling only, no swap. I have tried to price everything with the budget-conscious buyer in mind. This is Reddit, not Nordstrom - I get it.
The Necessary Details: Paypal G&S only/ I pay fees/ Shipping starts at $4.00/ no minimum. If you want to buy a 1$ item and pay $4 for shipping, I will not stand in your way. You go, girl!
Since I live in a tiny town in Oregon where I could practically slap the Postmaster while still sitting on my couch sipping a matcha tea latte, I will ship every day but Sunday. Seriously, I go past the post office every day so it’s no problem getting your items right out the door.
I will also be including a free little gift with each order, typically a deluxe or travel size something or other. I hate when you make a purchase and they include a single foil packet. All they’re doing is announcing to the universe that they are, in fact, chintzy. Whereas the universe knows that I am in fact, a giver. Sephora, I am looking at you.
Have fun, stay safe, think of what would make great Christmas presents. Not to freak you out but there are less than 46 shopping days.

Makeup

Palettes:

Zoeva Caramel Melange Palette $7
Violet Voss Essentials Pro Series Palette. $7
Ittse Build Your Own Magnetic Palette In Gold Vegan Leather $7
Kenia Ontiveros Beauty Set And Define Kit Palette $5
Crown Pro Palette $5
Boxycharm Loves Pur Palette $6
Nyx Professional Makeup Crew Palette $6
Me Makeover Essentials Simply There Lip And Eye Color Kit $5
Tarte Tarteist Pro To Go Purse Size Palette $7
Storybook Cosmetics Fairy Tales Robinhood Eyeshadow Palette $7
Bareminerals Bounce & Blur Eyeshadow Palette $7
Suva Protege Palette $6
Butter London Natural Goddess Palette I Have TWO $6 Each
Laura Geller Urban Garden Central Park Face Eye And Cheek Palette $6
Hank & Henry Living In Color Palette I Have 3 Of Them $5 Each
Laura Lee Party Animal Palette $5
Pur Midnight Masquerade Face Palette $6
Too Faced Natural Matte Eyeshadow Palette $14
Tarte Tarteist Pro Amazonian Clay Palette $20
The Saharan By Juvia's Pressed Pigment Palette $7
Fenty Beauty Moroccan Spice Palette $14
Kevyn Aucoin Emphasize Eye Design Palette Focused $24
Beauty Creations Cali Chic Eyeshadow Palette $5

Setting spray and powder:

TWO Ciate Everyday Vacay Setting Powder .52 Oz $7 Each
Grace And Stella Spray All Day Rose Setting Spray 8 Fl Oz $6
Coola Makeup Setting Spray Spf 30 1.5 Fl Ozs $6
Stila Powder Spray .39 Oz $7

Highlighter:

The Beauty Crop Glow Milk .53 Fl Oz $3
Bare Minerals Bare Radiance Full Size .85 grams $8
Artist Couture Diamond Glow Powder In Summer Haze 4.5 grams $7
Becca Shimmering Skin Perfector Pressed Rose Gold 2.4 Gram $5
Fenty Beauty Kill-a-watt Highlighter In Trophy Wife No Box $7

Makeup Primer:

Rodial Soft Focus Glow Drops 1 Fl Oz $4
Cover Fx Blurring Primer One Fl Oz $7
Pretty Vulgar Eyeshadow Primer $6
Ulta Matte Eye Primer 5 ml $1
Dr. Brandt Luminizer Primer Pores No More 1 Fl Oz No Box $7
Dr. Brandt Pores No More Luminizer Primer 1 Fl Oz With Box $8
It Cosmetics Cc Plus Color Correcting Full Coverage Cream Spf 50 Enlight Expires 06/21 Under Eye Corrector 4 ml $3

Blush:

Ciate Marble Light Illuminating Blusher In Halo $5
Hourglass Ambient Lighting Blush In Diffused Heat No Box (Because Boxycharm’s Shipping Sucks) $7
Milk Makeup Lip And Cheek In Werk .21 Oz $5
Milk Makeup Glow Oil Lip And Cheek In The Color Flare Buy Milk $5
Girlactik Skin Glow Duo In Moonlight $6 Each
Pacifica Runs Rose Rose And Coconut Infused Blush And Bronzer $6
Stila Convertible Color Dual Lip And Cheek Cream In Petunia 4.25 grams
Kevyn Aucoin The Neo Blush In Rosecliff $12

Brows:

Winky Lux Universal Brow Pencil $3
Billion Dollar Brows Brow Butter Pomade Kit Taupe 125 Fl Oz $5
Realher Eye Am Inspiring Definer Brow Pencil $1
Wander Beauty Frame Your Face Precision Brow Gel In Dark Brown .20 Oz $5

Lips:

Thrive Causemetics Lip Liner In Visalia $5
Lord & Berry Mandarin Lip Liner Deluxe Size $1
Hank And Henry Satin Cream Lipstick In Te Amo $3
Bodyography TWO Pack Lip Pencil $5
Nudestix Magnetic Lip Plump Paints In Waikiki Rose $7
Appeal Ultra Creme Liquid Lipstick In Sugar N Spice $1
Iconic Lip Gloss Honestly I Cannot Read The Color It Is So Freaking Tiny $1
Too Faced Rich And Dazzling High-shine Sparkling Lip Gloss In Pretty Penny 7 grams $8
Ofra Long Lasting Liquid Lipstick Monaco $5
Five Live It Watermelon Argan Lip Sting Plumping Butter Lipstick $5 Each
Nars Satin Lip Pencil .05 Oz (Deluxe) Rikugien $5
Fenty Beauty Gloss Bomb Diamond Milk No Box $8
Fenty Mattemoiselle In Pms $8

Lashes:

Too Faced Sex Hangover Mini-set With Hangover Rx Face Primer And Mini Better Than Sex Mascara $7
Kat Von D Sephora Beauty Insider Birthday Set Tattoo Liner Powder And Lip Pigments $5
House Of Lashes Premium Lash In Knockout $5
TWO Lashaholic Luxury Lashes $6 Each
Tarte Maneater Mascara Deluxe Size $4

Skincare:

Grown Alchemist Hydra-repair Day Cream Camila Geranium Blossom 2.9 Fl Oz 65 ml $5
Generation Clay Brightening Purple Clay Mask 3.97 Oz $6
Bliss Daily Detoxifying Facial Toner 6.7 Fl Ozs $5
Ahava Hydration Cream Mask 3.4 Fl OzsI Have 2 Of Them $5 each
Vasanti Brighten Up Enzymatic Face Rejuvenator Exfoliating Cleanser 2.2 Ozs $4
Blaq Charcoal Mask 2.03 Fl Ozs $2
Kylie Skin Foaming Face Wash 5 Fl Ozs $8
Way Of Will 03 Soothe And Cool Peppermint + German Chamomile Massage Oil To Fl Oz $4
Doctor Derma Solution Barrierderm Repair Ampoule 1.85 Fl Oz $5
Philosophy Take A Deep Breath Oil-free Energizing Oxygen Gel Cream Moisturizer 2 Fl Oz $7
Bliss The Real Peel T-zone In Pores Prison Purple Peel-off Mask With Charcoal Powder 2 Fl Oz $4
Whish Firming Sleep Mask 2 Fl Oz $4
Cuccio Yogahhh! Coinspot Therapy Would Peppermint And Green Tea 1.35 Fl Ozs $2
Goldfaden Md Bright Eyes Dark Circle Radiance Concentrate .5 Fl Oz $5
111skin Pollution Defense Booster .68 Fl Oz $10
Nuria Defend Triple-action Eye Cream .5 Fl Oz $7
Murad Hydrodynamic Ultimate Moisture For Eyes .5 Fl Oz $8
Wander Baggage Claim Gold Eye Masks A 6 Pair Set $6
Dr. Brandt Clean Biotic Ph Balance Yogurt Cleanser With Chlorophyll 3.5 Fl Oz $7
Glam Glow Berry Glow Probiotic Recovery Mask 2.5 Fl Oz
Pureheals Pore Clear Black Charcoal Cleansing Foam 5 Fl Oz $5
Glo Skin Beauty Anti Stress CBD Drops 1000mg CBD Plus Adaptogen Calming Serum 1 Fl Oz $25
Peter Thomas Roth Irish Moor Mud Purifying Cleansing Gel 8.5 Fl Oz $20
Lavido Age Away Replenishing Cream 1.69 Fl Oz $5
Fab Ultra Repair Cream Intense Hydration 2 Fl Ozs $7
TWO Malin+Goetz Recovery Treatment Oil 1 Fl Oz $10 Each
Fab Facial Radiance Pads 28 Pads $6
Murad Environmental Shield Essential C Day Moisture Broad Spectrum Spf Expires October 2021 1.7 Fl Ozs $10
Philosophy Anti-wrinkle Miracle Worker 2 Fl Ozs $10
Borghese Flo Protettivo Advanced Spa Lift For Eyes 1 Fl Oz $7

Hair:

Moroccan Gold Series Intense Argan Keratin Treatment Mask 8.45 Fl. Oz $5
TWO Original Invisibobble Sets, Each Set $2
Sutra Mini Ceramic Travel Curling Iron .75 In Pastel Yellow $10
Keratherapy Keratin Infused Rapid Rescue 4.2 Fl Ozs $7

Tools:

Glo Wrinkle Treatment Revive Light Therapy $10
Pmd Smart Facial Cleansing Device Pink $25
Yubi Buff And Blend Duo Sponge And Bath Brush Applicator $6
Lexi Classic Eye Set Rose Gold Eyeshadow Brushes $10
The Creme Shop Next-gen Blender Set $4
Luxie Gaea Brush Set $5
Foreo Luna Fofo Facial Cleansing Brush $20
Colour-pop Pink Vegan Leather Brush Holder With Brush Set $12
Billion Dollar Brushes Charcoal Brush Set $5
Alamar Blush And Highlight Brush Trio $5
Laruce Brush Set $6
F,A,R,A,H Be Beautiful Be You Eyeshadow Brush Set $6

Bath and Body:

Harper + Ari Exfoliating Sugar Cubes Juice Cleanse 4 Oz $3
TWO Skin & Co Sardinian Spirit Shower Gel 7.7 Fl Oz $4 Each
Korres After Sun Greek Yoghurt Cooling Gel For Face And Body 5 Fl Oz $6
TWO Sets Of Deborah Lippmann Nail Polish Oh Donna /Modern Love (Mauve Set) And Fire On The Horizon?Can’t Stop The Feeling (Red & Pink Set) $5 Each
Spongelle Body Wash Infused Buffer Vanilla Lavender (4) Honey Blossom (1) And Black Orchid (1) $5 Each
Estee Lauder Modern Muse Parfum 7 ml .24 Fl Ozs $5
Sol Janeiro Coco Cabana Cream (TWO) Brazilian Bum Bum Cream (1) .84 Fl Oz Each $5 Each
Love Script Body Wash Orange Blossom $5
Korres Pure Greek Olive Body Cream In Peach Blossom 6.76 Fl Oz $6
Cannuka CBD Cleansing Body Bar In Natural Scent 6.5 Oz Made From CBD & Manuka Honey $6 Each
Urban Decay Honey Scented Sparkling Body Powder (It Is Edible, And Does Taste Like Honey If You Really Did Need To Know That;) I Have Three $14 Each
submitted by BaconWrappedBob to makeupexchange [link] [comments]


2020.10.20 13:16 Novalitwick My first year in NA (Normal Worlds 2019 format)

NA Random 5

2020)

Finished regular season as 8th place with a record of 7-11, the LCKs second seed Griffin won the world Finals in a 3-2 against the second seed from the LEC Sky10. Finals MVP was awarded to Ziming 'Hellojoe' Jianghua a 17 year old Support from Taiwan, his favourite champions being Sona and Bard, both played 4 times with a 75% winrate. Played Sona in the final round and decided the game with a 1-0-21 performance.
📷

2021)

Time to take control and win a few games. This seasons goal is reaching Playoffs first we re-sign Kareem 'Deavoll0' Djuricic an average Canadian Toplaner who seems to take on the role as the designated shotcaller of the Team
Random 5 before free agency 2021:
📷

Free-Agency 2021

We signed Dustin 'tienchen' Muhao as a promising Midlaner on a 3-year contract. Let us hope our coaches can get him to perform to his potential.
📷
Two of our players had a big increase. Sadly our overall team does not seem very good as of preseason.

Preseason 2021

We signed Lon 'gauner93' Yuyang a North American jungler, as our analysts scouted a big increase in overall performance of the rookie.
📷
Chuck 'Azrial96' Zhengdong was picked up as a Midlaner. He previously played for Proper Logic Gaming so I hope he has a bit of stage experience and performs consistent with our jungler. He has less of a Champion-Pool and more of an ocean. Nothing was played more than two times and only one of these champions has a 100% winrate, which would be ekko.
📷
Steven 'Earendur' Fisher rounds out our 2021 roster. He has performed very good in terms of Team play and his Team Fighting will hopefully get us a few wins in the mid-endgame Teamfights.
📷

The Fury Gaming Deal

Looking to save money we allowed three of our team members to search for opportunities elsewhere, and the LCS team Fury Gaming wants to trade three of their Korean players.
📷
Youngmin 'xXssssXx' Lee moved to the main roster, as he seems to be a better player than our traded away support, but the language barrier worries me. What would an NA team be without at least one import.
📷

Regular Season 2021

Random 5 roster 2021
📷
I think we did a good job with our finances managing to keep the payroll below $ 400k with 4 Benched players.

Highlights

Week 1

📷
We managed to win both games of our first week with xXSssssXx performing very well in both and gauner93 stepping up on Pantheon jungle with a KDA of 6-0-12.

Bot gap against Aurora Mediocrtias

Azrial96 Swain 6-0-15 Earendur Lucian 10-0-11 xXSssssXx Veigar 1-1-22
I think we got a team to acknowledge going 5-3 so far, dropping games only against the favourites EGA (0-2) and Death Cap for Cutie currently in a three-way tie for first

Taking the lead of the Pack in the last two days

In a close game against the first place Fury Gaming we came out on top with a score of 13-4 so far we are the current leaders of the LCS Group Stage and with only one game left to play we cannot slot in lower than second place. With only one game left against the last place Made in Heaven our chances are looking very good to finish first.
Against all odds Made in heaven won, but Fury Gaming lost their last game too. We finished first in our first season of making active choices. Everyone at the Gaming House is celebrating and chances are looking very good that we can go to worlds 2021 as one of the North American seeds.

Conclusion of the regular season 2021

📷

The First BO5

Proper Logic Gaming has won against Death Cap for Cutie so we will face them in the semi-final. If we win the series, we will go to Worlds 2021 as at least second seed of North America, dodging the Play-in Phase and going straight to the group stage. I think we can do it, but without a lot of luck we will probably not make it to play-offs.

Game 1

Our jungler gauner93 started of the series with a strong Jax performance (5-0-9), giving his team the lead to take game 1.

Game 2

PLG seeing the Jax as a threat, banned him away from gauner93, but the Mid/Jungle Duo impacted the Map in and carried from the shadows with Annie (0-1-12) and Rek’Sai (0-2-9), with Earendur popping of on Vayne with a KDA of 8-1-4 in the end.

Game 3

We sealed the series with a perfect score and booked our ticket to Worlds, as well as KS Gaming who also finished 3-0. With the dreaded Pantheon of gauner93 and an Anivia Mid we won our first series as a GM of NA with Random5.

LCS Finals

Expecting a very competitive series we head into the finals. We are already further than we expected to be this year. Winning the LCS would be a huge thing.

Game 1

We kicked of things very strong showing no mercy in a 19-1 game where only our Draven died to the enemy Akali Mid. The highlight of the game was definitely gauner93s Ivern going 7-0-8.

Game 2

Going in with confidence we got completely destroyed with only Deavoll0s Karma and Earendurs Jhin getting a kill with the help of xXSssssXx Lulu who had a kill participation of 100%

Game 3

KS secured match point picking away three of the main Picks of our team. Tham Kench Top, Pantheon Jungle and Trundle Support have fallen into the hands of our enemy but the best performance was OccDoggy with Vladimir (6-0-7)

Game 4

KS did take the LCS title this year and we get to go to Worlds as the second NA seed.

LCS Playoffs 2021

📷

Play-Ins 2021

We had 2 major upsets in the Play-In stage.
The Latin American Team Scorch Gaming has beaten the European Luckerdog eSports around the Danish Toplaner EskimoHD. Scorch has a very good support imported as a rookie from the CIS region and three Korean ADCs who currently just sit on the bench.
A Wildcard team has also beaten the Korean team MC Aztec Gaming. The Brazilians have Cesscotl a Brazilian ADC who has a banger of a first year. A rookie who has a rating of 80/80, which is only outclassed by calibis of the Brazilian Rio Raiders and capamiky of the Korean Team YP. Both of these Teams did not qualify for worlds, making this Brazilian wonder child the best-rated ADC of the World Championship 2021.

Groups 2021

We seem to be in a group of death with the first seed of the LPL and the second seed of the LEC. In addition, Death Cap is in this group, which I was happy to dodge in the LCS. Ivern was at it again with 6-0-11 against Team Solo Top, but other than that we lost the first week (one win more than TSM).
Second Game against the LPL we actually won, and Bjergsen write that down… with Zilean Mid going 9-2-9 and Miss Fortune Support (0-0-21) which is actually very good with 22 kills for us.
We have beaten team Solo Top. Again a Miss Fortune Support, which kinda seems to be our special this group Stage. Azrial96 has really carried on Vladimir finishing 10-0-9
Earendur carried one of the most important Games this season with Aphelios (6-0-8) we are going to the play-offs and just need to play a tiebreaker against the LPLs Thunder10, which we lost, but play-offs none the less.
📷

Playoffs 2021

📷
The second seed from Korea, who went on to win the whole tournament dropping only a single game, swept us. Better luck next year, I guess.

Summary

📷
📷
We made the regional All Star Team exept for our Support and Steven 'Earendur' Fisher was made regional MVP, with his most played Champ in Playoffs being Draven with four picks and two wins.
submitted by Novalitwick to zengmlol [link] [comments]


2020.02.04 03:54 TrveKitsvne Sakura Gakuin Review, volume 58-A Sakura Gakuin, @onefive, BABYMETAL

Vol. 57-A Vol. 57-B
Sakura Gakuin Review, volume 58-A Sakura Gakuin, @onefive, BABYMETAL

Sakura Gakuin

Upcoming events and releases

Previous lives

Tokyo Idol Festival 2019
SG Festival 2019 (@onefive debut)
Sakura Gakuin☆2019 ~Happy Xmas~
Other lives and media coverage

Other events

Birthday threads
SG activities
Ganbare!! FRESH! Monday
Discussion threads
106 - 107 - 108 - 110 - 111 - Summer 1
Summer 2 - 114 - 115 - 116 - 117 - 118
119 - 120 - 121 - 122 -123 - 124 - 125
126 - 127 - 128 - 129 - 130 - 131 -132
Extracurricular activities
Other events and information

@onefive

"Pinky Promise"

Other events and information

BABYMETAL

Metal Galaxy

Megathreads and compilations
Music videos and album promos

Interviews (English/translated)

Tour threads and info

LEGEND - METAL GALAXY (3 Avengers + 8 Kami rotation and combination)
Live at The Forum ("Da Da Dance" performance debut, Riho + Momoko rotation)
2020 Asia
2020 Europe
2019 Asia
2019 US (debut of backing band members from Galactic Empire and Shadow of Intent)

Other events and information

submitted by TrveKitsvne to SakuraGakuin [link] [comments]


2019.09.23 06:46 derweenie October 1917

4: WWI – Battle of Broodseinde near Ypres: British Imperial forces overpower the German 4th Army's defences.
12: WWI – First Battle of Passchendaele: Allies fail to take a German defensive position, with the biggest loss of life in a single day for New Zealand, over 800 of whose men and 45 officers are killed, roughly 1 in 1,000 of the nation's population at this time.
12-19: WWI – Operation Albion - German forces land on and capture the West Estonian archipelago.
13: The Miracle of the Sun, an inexplicable solar phenomenon witnessed by tens of thousands of gathered worshipers and journalists, is reported at Fátima, Portugal. According to the words of the Reverend General Vicar of Leiria, who was one of the witnesses, the lady came in an 'aeroplane of light,' an 'immense globe, flying westwards, at moderate speed.
15: WWI - At Vincennes outside Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for Germany.
19: Dallas Love Field Airport is opened in Texas / Carl Swartz leaves office as Prime Minister of Sweden, after dismal election results for the right-wing in the Riksdag elections in September. He is replaced by liberal leader and history professor Nils Edén.
23: A Brazilian ship is destroyed by a German U-Boat, encouraging Brazil to enter World War I.
24: WWI – Battle of Caporetto - Austrian and German forces penetrate Italian lines as far south as the Piave River. It is the first major engagement for junior German officer Erwin Rommel.
26: WWI - Brazil declares war against the Central Powers.
27: WWI – Battle of Buqqar Ridge: Ottoman forces attack British Desert Mounted Corps units garrisoning El-Buqqar Ridge, during the last days of the Stalemate in Southern Palestine.
31: WWI – Battle of Beersheba - The British XX Corps and Desert Mounted Corps (Egyptian Expeditionary Force) attack and capture Beersheba from Ottoman forces, ending the stalemate in Southern Palestine. The battle includes a rare (by this date) mounted charge, by Australian mounted infantry.
submitted by derweenie to illumonopoli [link] [comments]


2019.06.27 05:58 subreddit_stats Subreddit Stats: redscarepod top posts from 2018-06-07 to 2019-06-27 00:21 PDT

Period: 384.38 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 20952
Rate (per day) 2.60 54.52
Unique Redditors 339 1678
Combined Score 51536 178126

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 1605 points, 29 submissions: PHtreester
    1. Red Scare in a nutshell (157 points, 14 comments)
    2. I can feel my calves starting to cramp (110 points, 6 comments)
    3. Kamala 2020 in dire straights already (99 points, 17 comments)
    4. Early Instance of Venmo Feminism (96 points, 7 comments)
    5. Anna is biting Noam Chomsky's late wife, Carol's style (91 points, 16 comments)
    6. Namaste 🙏 (76 points, 19 comments)
    7. Vranak has a beautiful mind (74 points, 28 comments)
    8. Following along (71 points, 24 comments)
    9. Slavoj Zizek weighs in on the Red Scare Podcast (63 points, 40 comments)
    10. 😖 (59 points, 5 comments)
  2. 1260 points, 26 submissions: alexandrawallace69
    1. Rest in Peace Ernest (98 points, 13 comments)
    2. Dasha and Adam (87 points, 15 comments)
    3. Ugly Woman. Upvote this so people see it when they Google "Ugly Woman" (81 points, 6 comments)
    4. Beyonce pays 0.64 (73 points, 5 comments)
    5. On the latest Chapo, Will was whining that he got bullied by a Russian Amazon woman (62 points, 12 comments)
    6. Dasha and Adam at Bernie rally (61 points, 17 comments)
    7. Exchange with Nick on Love Line episode (61 points, 27 comments)
    8. My boomer uncle thinks Iranian agents are in Mexico ready to cross the boarder and do terrorism (60 points, 41 comments)
    9. Kamala Harris supporters drowning out McDonald's workers demonstrating with Bernie for a higher minimum wage (52 points, 8 comments)
    10. Anna talking about other socialist women (ouch!) (51 points, 45 comments)
  3. 1254 points, 23 submissions: abdlpolpot
    1. anna khachiyan??????? oh you mean HOE ROGAN???? (129 points, 19 comments)
    2. anna and dasha should do a episode about go to the zoo (110 points, 28 comments)
    3. u know were all thinking this (110 points, 18 comments)
    4. i want 2 do a roledplay w/ angela nagle where i pretend 2 be imigrant and she makes the left case against me (94 points, 3 comments)
    5. if anna have a baby w her clone (73 points, 9 comments)
    6. anna and dasha do a episode at a elemetary school where they warn about dangers of coacaine (68 points, 4 comments)
    7. does anyone sometimes wish the redscarepodcast girls were real ppl??? (68 points, 4 comments)
    8. anna tweete: brooklyn socialists r always buying expensicve choclates because their terrified of intimate anal experineces because theyre mothers neglected to satisfy them sexuallly @ a young age (58 points, 4 comments)
    9. shia go on redscarepod (53 points, 33 comments)
    10. he really is working his way up 2 being maybe 1 of the top5-10 poasters on the entre internet (44 points, 11 comments)
  4. 931 points, 16 submissions: flipped_pancake_tity
    1. Red Scare taught me that sometimes it’s more important to be a bitch than have anything meaningful to say (156 points, 14 comments)
    2. Episode idea: the girls interview some gen z-ers (118 points, 26 comments)
    3. Dasha when you post her poetry (77 points, 7 comments)
    4. I just realized Dasha thinks infanticide should be legal because she doesn’t want the competition (70 points, 9 comments)
    5. Azealia Banks as third mic (63 points, 16 comments)
    6. I feel that this sub is just overrun by hetero freaks too scared to admit they find Dasha or Anna hot on the cumtown reddit (63 points, 37 comments)
    7. Conspiracy theory about the girls (61 points, 42 comments)
    8. “I would feel the same way if a black teenager said ‘kill cops’ and if you wouldn’t, think about what moral ground you’re standing on” (52 points, 18 comments)
    9. In honour of everything being brought to light in the Mueller report, I think we all need the truth to come out (44 points, 6 comments)
    10. All the media girls roasting AOC’s boyfriend look exactly like the moon emoji 🌚 (43 points, 16 comments)
  5. 899 points, 23 submissions: ghjfgfg
    1. Meryl Streep doesn't agree with 'toxic masculinity' and thinks women can be 'f****ng toxic too' (66 points, 15 comments)
    2. This is why i like the red scare subreddit (57 points, 24 comments)
    3. Naomi Wolf realises on live radio that the historical thesis of the book she's there to promote is based on her misunderstanding a legal term (56 points, 42 comments)
    4. Yanis Varoufakis is the perfect man for Anna. He's a leftist intellectual and a "manly man" (56 points, 16 comments)
    5. Caption this (52 points, 21 comments)
    6. Cory Kennedy's #DearIvanka moment (48 points, 12 comments)
    7. January Jones slammed for comments on anxiety meme - What is everyone nervous about? We all die. Find love or don’t. Have fun or don’t. Eat food and then get rid of it. It’s easy.” (48 points, 26 comments)
    8. Eight Women Accuse Hollywood Filmmaker Max Landis of Emotional and Sexual Abuse: ‘We’re Not People to Him’ (42 points, 60 comments)
    9. Burial's back!!! (41 points, 21 comments)
    10. Shame Theory (40 points, 73 comments)
  6. 679 points, 12 submissions: ghostHardvvare
    1. /redscare (167 points, 16 comments)
    2. Anna Finally Unbanned on Twitter (116 points, 31 comments)
    3. Episode idea: the girls go work on a farm for a day (59 points, 28 comments)
    4. Met Gala = Gay Nerd Bullshit (56 points, 4 comments)
    5. Red Scare Season 2 Predictions (53 points, 18 comments)
    6. ACTUALLY , Anna, it means that the criticism of the patriarchy isn't actually a threat to its existence (39 points, 18 comments)
    7. Johnny Depp was abused by ex-wife Amber Heard, who accused him of sexual assault to further her career (37 points, 12 comments)
    8. Red Scare Podcast: Big Macsulinity (35 points, 82 comments)
    9. The Abjectification of Wammin (33 points, 1 comment)
    10. Zizek is Allowed to Say It (31 points, 10 comments)
  7. 656 points, 11 submissions: OprahDollars
    1. Made meme to explain (for visitors) (229 points, 13 comments)
    2. Imagine saying this while also being Anna (74 points, 15 comments)
    3. Anna twert: performatively caring about the extinction of animals is a hideous sublimation of the fear ugly women have that they’ll never convince a man to knock them up (68 points, 12 comments)
    4. Do you think there’s been a delay in putting out a new ep because they’re trying to find a fun new way to say Biden did nothing wrong (50 points, 10 comments)
    5. In celebration of the Mueller report tomorrow, who else is bringing their gun to work? (46 points, 6 comments)
    6. do you think Michael Tracey is going through a manic episode (39 points, 18 comments)
    7. Seeing Dasha and Anna’s tweets about AOC I was like oh no, what did she do, did she endorse Warren (37 points, 45 comments)
    8. How should you actually get involved with politics without wanting to kill yourself (29 points, 31 comments)
    9. “LISTEN UP BITCHES, IT’S TIME TO LEARN INCORRECT THINGS ABOUT SOMEONE YOU’VE NEVER HEARD OF” (29 points, 35 comments)
    10. I know amber said she doesn’t trust someone who likes chapo but not cumtown (28 points, 54 comments)
  8. 654 points, 13 submissions: jak_laka
    1. Lena Dunham enjoying red scare kinda ruined it for me. (112 points, 53 comments)
    2. To retard Luke Turner: NEVER, EVER THREATEN THE RED SCARE POD AGAIN OR YOU WILL SUFFER CONSEQUENCES THE LIKES OF WHICH FEW THROUGHOUT HISTORY HAVE EVER SUFFERED BEFORE. WE ARE NO LONGER A COUNTRY THAT WILL STAND FOR YOUR DEMENTED WORDS OF VIOLENCE & DEATH. BE CAUTIOUS! (80 points, 2 comments)
    3. Anna heading to twitter. (69 points, 6 comments)
    4. I am just finishing 35 days in rehab: no alcohol, no drugs, no energy drinks, no internet, no porn, no podcasts, no cellphone, no tobacco; 35 days of deep soul-searching, learning about myself and the things that fueled my life of addiction- and I only have one thing to say ... (50 points, 1 comment)
    5. Dasha's eyes are really far apart. (46 points, 4 comments)
    6. I believe this image has acquired a different level of significance. (Podcaster Anna Khachiyan, in her room, helping co-host Dasha with her self care) (45 points, 3 comments)
    7. Dasha after Adam fails to pleasure her. (42 points, 3 comments)
    8. thought i looked cute might delete later (41 points, 13 comments)
    9. Petition to bring back Meg (38 points, 29 comments)
    10. MFW this sub goes full idpol. (PS. this post is only for the trannies and fatties.) (37 points, 13 comments)
  9. 589 points, 13 submissions: yourecancelled
    1. i will vote for whoever bans this font from existence (94 points, 20 comments)
    2. BREAKING: Iranian President Rouhani Says White House is 'Mentally Retarded' (91 points, 18 comments)
    3. Fox News host asks who backs Bernie's single-payer healthcare plan, rust belt crowd erupts in cheers (57 points, 2 comments)
    4. Roseanne Barr announces she’s ‘queer,’ slams the word ‘f-g’ (53 points, 18 comments)
    5. the Dasha is fat stuff (41 points, 70 comments)
    6. personal drama in the sub (37 points, 37 comments)
    7. #MondayMotivation: Playboy model kills sugar daddy after he cuts her off (36 points, 5 comments)
    8. goodbye sisters (for now) (36 points, 20 comments)
    9. tea (32 points, 20 comments)
    10. Sober Curious (29 points, 25 comments)
  10. 558 points, 8 submissions: 15millionschmeckles
    1. that smile....that damn smile (168 points, 26 comments)
    2. anti-christ (93 points, 11 comments)
    3. Brazilian cartoon on US Presidential election 2008 (90 points, 0 comments)
    4. best bit of duologue on the pod: (68 points, 2 comments)
    5. I’m onboard with Anna making fun of gaming (39 points, 38 comments)
    6. Redsident Evil/ Mr. XX chromosome. (39 points, 7 comments)
    7. I want Gerby Gomo to go on Red Scare (34 points, 7 comments)
    8. the most fun thing about these ‘podcast wars’... (27 points, 19 comments)

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  7. THE DATE I WENT ON YESTERDAY by verythin (161 points, 86 comments)
  8. [Nathan fielder voice] my plan? convincing hyperliterate leftists that it's okay to say the word retard by yugioh_mishima (159 points, 4 comments)
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2019.02.02 04:32 jasonk12 Albums I listened to in 2018 (Part 2 of 2)

This is a continuation of this post. Again, sorry for having to split this up, it came out way longer than expected. I now resume rambling about 2018 stuff.

---
Powerglove - Continue?: Well that's disappointing. Powerglove were away for a long while and I eagerly anticipated their return as they're by far my favorite instrumental band. This album however sounds marginally better than your average youtube cover, for the most part. For the uninitiated, Powerglove cover famous videogame tunes in their own power metal way, often adding their own spins to the formula or making a fun little medley of compiled tunes. This is still true here, and there's a lot of stuff to dig into (Mario, Chrono Trigger, Final Fantasy among others), but the end result is a bit underwhelming unfortunately. Take "Mario Minor 2" for example, nearly 7 minutes of Mario stuff and I recognize absolutely nothing. It's supposed to be from Mario 2, but other than an obvious nod to the overworld music at some point (and the boss music towards the end) I just don't hear it. I partially blame myself for this but their original Mario Minor was leagues above in enjoyment and replayability. "Kraid's Lair" is 6 and a half minutes of boring chugging, then the Super Metroid theme comes on and everybody wets their pants, then it's back to nothing. "Chrono Trigger" kinda outstays its welcome at 10 minutes. Upon further listening I think I figured out my main issues: they don't add enough of their own "sauce" if you will, making most of the songs sound like youtube covers, and a lot of the time the songs are too long to retain your interest. Their previous album had almost every song at most 3 or 4 minutes long, but here they frequently go over 6 minutes. It's probably no coincidence that the shortest songs are the best; "Kirby" is legitimately great and got me hooked for a long time. "Under the Sea" features Dragonforce's Marc Hudson on vocals, and though it sounds a bit all over the place, it kinda works. "The Highwind Takes to the Skies" and "Guile's Theme" are also pretty good, although the latter borders on meme metal I guess. Unfortunately that's all I liked. I still like Powerglove and I admit the youtube comparison is somewhat unfair as it's clear that it's done by pros and that a ton of effort went into making this album, but the entire thing left me feeling kinda eh. B-

Highlight: Kirby

Powerwolf - The Sacrament of Sin: Well I'll be damned, I enjoyed this much more than I expected to. Out of all power metal novelty acts, Powerwolf is one of the most unique and generally one of the few worth checking out. However, the relative stagnancy of their music and their incessant spam of epic organs, latin psalms and ave marias made their shtick pretty tiring, so I skipped their 2015 album and listened to this one expecting to get quickly tired again. This album actually makes Powerwolf sound fresh and exciting! Granted, their music still hasn't developed all that much, and it probably helps that I hadn't really listened to them since 2013, but it does look like they've perfected their sound and know how to make their shtick enjoyable. Opener "Fire & Forgive" and closer "Fist by Fist" became instant favorites (despite their similarities) with their anthemic, fist-pumping vibe and Attila's ever great vocals. The title track is a great one as well, since Powerwolf kick into high gear and deliver a fast song in the style of German power metal. There's also "Where the Wild Wolves Have Gone", where they try their hand at a ballady-like song, and it works pretty well (it's also a first for Powerwolf, I think). "Incense and Iron" deserves a mention too for being extremely catchy and having a folkier sound than the rest. Even the more Eurovision-style, dancey tunes like "Venom of Venus" and "Demons are a Girl's Best Friend" are enjoyable because they're executed well. Not every song is a success though (didn't care much for "Stossgebet") and outside of a couple of songs the album is plain old Powerwolf. I think I've had my Powerwolf dose and I'm good for at least a couple of years, but for what it was, this album is as enjoyable as it gets. A-

Highlight: The Sacrament of Sin

Roman So Words - Roman's: Weeby j-power metal, that's what this is. For the people still reading, Roman so Words is quite a weird band (what the hell does their name even mean?). I always pegged them as one of those derivative anime-cover symphony j-power metal bands that were only propagated within doujin circles, despite the latter being probably not true. Regardless, this is their first full album, so I thought it was about time to check them out. The album is about evenly split between hyperactive power metal (think Dragonforce or Dragon Guardian) and what I can only describe as jrpg music. It works well, I won't deny that songs like "Accord" and "Romancing Waltz" are catchy and joyful, like Nobuo Uematsu's forgotten work that didn't make it into the earlier Final Fantasies. I also won't deny that the jazzy-sounding "Elise" is a guilty pleasure. These songs don't qualify as metal though. The actual power metal on this album is JPM through and through; Dragonforce guitars, nasal female vocals, an emphasis on flashy solos and catchy choruses (the symphonic elements are well done indeed), but at the end of the day very little will stick with you. "Ballad of Starlight", "Aria", "Rin", "Echo x Tear", all of them fit this description and they're pretty good songs while you're listening to them, but afterwards you can't really tell them apart or remember anything particular about them. As such, I'd say this album is on par with the average Dragon Guardian album; it's kinda fun for a short while, but soon enough your attention span will dwindle and you will quickly find yourself wanting to move on to something else. B

Highlight: Aria

Royal Jester - Breaking the Chains: Surprise comeback of the year, I was almost sure Royal Jester were a one-time album band after they dropped off the face of the earth in 2012. Happily (and without warning), they dropped their new album late in 2018. For people familiar with their debut, this one is more of the same; happy, keyboard-heavy Swedish power metal, with a focus on melodies and catchy choruses (think ReinXeed with a vocalist eerily similar to Weird Al). Nothing groundbreaking, but everything here is very listenable and inoffensive for the most part. "Here We Are" I particularly liked, it has a classic happy power metal chorus that gets like 2-3 key changes towards the end. "From the Ashes" is similar in spirit, moving on at a galloping pace. "Cry on Forever" is probably the fastest song here, a stupidly happy yet wholly unoriginal power metal track. Closer "Time of our Lives" is a classic melodious feel-good tune to send off the album on a high note. These are the highlights more or less; "Power Metal Never Dies" ain't shabby either, but they had to go and give it a cringey name. The rest of the songs are a middling bunch, there are some forgettable mid-paced songs where the singer sounds a bit poor, there's "Sands of Time" which is okay for the most part but sports a weird chorus. I think people into ReinXeed will most appreciate this album overall, or perhaps anyone in need of some happy formulaic EUPM, of which there wasn't a lot in 2018 frankly. B

Highlight: Here We Are

Salieri - Babylon: This is another album that likely flew under everyone's radar. It was only brought to my attention from a post in this sub - "Zlata Horecka" is absolutely one of the best songs I've heard this year. It has relentless speed, great lower-pitched vocals, a tasteful blend of keyboards and guitars like early Sonata Arctica, catchy verses and to top it all off a chorus for the ages. I really couldn't believe how this unknown band from Czech Republic managed to make something of this quality, something that my ears would instantly like. So naturally I had to check if the rest of the album was like this. Turns out this was by far the best song in there, but the rest of their stuff isn't too disappointing after all. "Giordano Buro" sports an equally soaring chorus, however, clocking in at 8:30 minutes it becomes a bit too much at times. This is my main gripe with the album - every song is about 7, 8 or 9 minutes long when really all of them could have been a good deal shorter and actually improve the album. "Zlata Horecka" is the shortest of the bunch at just a little over 5 minutes long, and it's no coincidence it blows the rest out of the water. "Kralovna melodie" fittingly has bursts of pleasant melodies throughout the track, and most of the rest of the songs move along these lines, as all of them boast catchy keyboards and good mid-range vocals (seriously I would like to see more vocals like this in power metal). The last two tracks "Babylon" and "Salieri" are collectively 16 minutes of boredom as they're both pretty ballady and uninteresting, so essentially only 6 songs are worth checking out here. But really, if you have to listen to anything out of it, it's most probably "Zlata Horecka". B

Highlight: Zlata Horecka

Seven Thorns - Symphony of Shadows: I'm often surprised that Seven Thorns rarely get talked about here, their previous two albums were a fairly standard yet decent slab of melodic EUPM, like a happier-sounding Gamma Ray or a more aggressive Freedom Call. Their newest album has them entering a rather edgy phase, judging from the all-black cover featuring crows and a bloodied Marilyn Manson in a top hat. The music itself doesn't manage to be that edgy though; there are a couple blastbeats and 'darker' sounding songs, if you will, but overall this is still very saccharine melodic power metal. "Evil Within" aims for the aforementioned darker sound, yet explodes into a triumphant happy-sounding chorus, which works pretty well actually. "Black Fortress" is another mid-paced track similar to "Evil Within", catchy chorus and everything. Most of the songs here have a clear emphasis on melodic choruses and not on speed or double bass drums, which is a shame since when they go into that territory they pull it off well. Case in point, "Last Goodbye" and "Symphony of Shadows" are by far the best songs on the album, as both are very energetic and fast-paced with uplifting choruses. I would have preferred to have more of this, but the rest of the songs aren't half-bad either, for people who like chorus-oriented tunes at least. Well, except "Virtual Supremacy", the verses in this song were so bad I almost cringed. I'm a bit on the fence about recommending this as I'm lukewarm towards the end product and can't really compare it to a particular band. Upon repeated listens I drew a few parallels between this album and current Nocturnal Rites, since the singers sound similar and both put an emphasis on choruses, so I'll go with this comparison. B

Highlight: Last Goodbye

Sinbreed - IV: Gotta give credit to Sinbreed for being one of the most consistent, play-it-safe bands in the genre nowadays. All of their albums so far have this "safe" Helloween-like sound of german power metal, so if you dig this description you will probably like Sinbreed (and if you don't dig it, you will probably never like Sinbreed). "IV" is no exception. They got a new vocalist, and though he's no Herbie Langhans, he does a good job on most of the songs and Sinbreed's sound actually benefits from the higher registers of this dude's voice. So, there's not much to see here, it's what you expect Helloween-style power metal to sound like. That doesn't mean it's not well done however; "First Under the Sun", "Through the Fire", "Falling Down" and "Pride Strikes" are captivating and blazingly fast songs with cheesy Helloween-like choruses, which is what most of us are looking for anyway. I did also like "Wasted Trust" and the catchiness of "Pale-Hearted", though I understand most thought the latter was bad. The rest of the album is mostly forgettable stuff and the singer clearly sounds amateurish at times, while nothing sounds particularly inspiring. That's hardly surprising for a band who decided to name their fourth album "IV" though. Other than these issues, you can tell this was a competent effort. In sum: it's a Sinbreed album. B

Highlight: First Under the Sun

Thaurorod - Coast of Gold: Third time's the charm for Thaurorod, who finally hit their stride and delivered a power metal album of the highest caliber like I knew they would. In many ways this album is the embodiment of 'just right'; it has a perfectly fine timelength of 50 minutes, a good amount of songs (10 in total with no intro / interlude fluff), a healthy dose of fast tunes with a few slower paced ones to let the album breathe a little, it's like everything was planned to a tee. The songs themselves are all top tier - "Power" sets the tone for the rest of the album by being an appropriately powerful track with a captivating and uplifting chorus, complete with Andi's soothing voice. "The Commonwealth Lives" (that's a weird title) is even better in that regard, sporting a catchier chorus and a faster, almost breakneck-speed pace. The title track is in the same vein as the previous two tracks, but without making the album tiring or redundant. "24601" is a nice change of pace, both music-wise and lyrically. I enjoyed the homage to Les Miserables, as well as the homage to Sonata Arctica with those infectious melodies. The best song of the album however has to be "Feed the Flame" - it's like Dragonforce, Sonata Arctica and Freedom Call spawned the song as it's equal parts relentless, catchy and soaring. The chorus in particular is flat-out amazing, they repeat it like three times in the end and I still can't get enough of it. This is like the quintessential power metal song, and likely my SOTY. "My Sun Will Rise" is a close second favorite, similar in speed and catchiness but with a tad more serious / less happy vibe. Nearly every song here is a highlight; perhaps ballad "Halla" and the mid-paced "Cannibal Island" are a tad less excellent than the rest, but they help in making the album cohesive so there is no room to complain. Overall, Coast of Gold is IMO up there with some of the best material from Sonata Arctica and Stratovarius, and definitely feels more like it was released in 2003 rather than 2018. One of the best of the year for sure! A

Highlight: Feed the Flame

Torian - God of Storms: Another sleeper hit for 2018. I was only vaguely familiar with Torian before listening to this, but I thought of them as another unremarkable, run-of-the-mill German power metal band. This album however sounds like it was crafted by one of the leading bands in the genre, both in terms of musicianship and sound quality. Seriously everything here sounds crystal clear and damned good, the choirs during the choruses in particular would put Orden Ogan to shame. In fact this album does sound a bit like Orden Ogan in their prime. "Evil vs Evil" for example is a furious track that would fit right into Orden Ogan's "To The End". "Far From Midian Sky" is an even more pummeling powerhouse of a song with a captivating chorus. "Old Friend Failure" and "Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken" (Hammerfall nod?) are a bit more mid-paced and anthemic-sounding but my god, these choirs. They're omnipresent, but at the same time they're tastefully used and they don't smother every song, it really adds a lot to the album. Most of the album is pretty hard hitting German power metal (especially "Crimson Born"), so nothing is too original but at the same time everything sounds high-quality. The album closes with the token epic "A Glorious Downfall", nearly 9 minutes of catchy Orden-Ogan like goodness. I mean it, Orden Ogan fans ought to get a kick out of listening to this, but then again most should check it out as it's one of the best albums 2018 had to offer. A-

Highlight: Far From Midian Sky

Traumer - History: Brazilian power metallers Traumer are back with yet another fairly standard EUPM-worship album. I really can't tell much of a difference between this album and their previous one; opener "History" almost sounds exactly like the opener of their previous one ("Forever Starts Tomorrow"). The singer's voice is pretty inoffensive, but he blatantly tries to emulate Andre Matos and his vocals become grating at times due to that. Still, the track is okayish cookie-cutter power metal. "Lullaby" lies on the less fast, more melodic side, but other than that it's more of the same. The entire album sounds like these two songs repeated again and again, with few surprises to behold. "Lonely Rain" has a slight bait-and-switch thing going on, as it starts like a ballad and then blossoms into a happy sounding fast-paced power metal song. "Revolution Has Begun" is also pretty uplifting, as is the bonus track "Burning Rainbow Road". The real ballad of the album, "Thousand Tears", actually manages to not suck, which was another surprise. The rest of the songs are kind of a blur; I don't know if it's this dude's voice, or the general melancholic / soft tone of the album, but it easily puts me to sleep and when it comes to power metal, you really want the opposite of that. Even when it comes to old EUPM emulation, there are far better offerings this year to check out. B-

Highlight: Well that's awkward, there are no videos of any album song online. You didn't miss out on much anyway.

Unlucky Morpheus - Change of Generation: People seem to be going crazy about the new Unlucky Morpheus (which is good - they deserve recognition), but to me this sounded like yet another Japanese power metal album. I've probably listened to far more weeby power metal than the average power metal fan though, so maybe I'm biased. Still, this is pretty high quality stuff; "Knight of Sword", "Cadaver" and "Change of Generation" are all powerful anthems in the usual JPM fashion you either hate or love. Vocalist Fuki does a great job as always, and there are a bunch of strings and violins in places to spice things up, which really adds a lot to the songs. There are also a couple of more ballady, violin-heavy tracks like "鎮昏歌" and the closing track, which sound beautiful and make this release stand out a little from Japanese Power Metal Album #4962. Then there are the questionable parts of the album - I don't get what they were trying to do with "Revadac". It's supposed to have the music arrangement of "Cadaver" but backwards, yet outside of vague familiarity I didn't really hear it. I'm also not a fan of the harsh vocals, they feel very tacked on and some of the songs in there could very well do without them. Other than this relatively minor gripe, this is still enjoyable. I just think the other album they put out this year deserves more praise than the praise this one gets. B+

Highlight: Change of Generation

Unlucky Morpheus - Saireco Jealousy: I was on the fence about including this one, since it's barely 30 minutes long and it's a remake of their 2009 album "Jealousy". I ended up including it because it's worth a listen and IMO it has stronger material than "Change of Generation" with none of the duds. In short, it's Unlucky Morpheus going at full throttle with possibly some of their all-time classic songs on deck. "Jealousy of Silence" is extremely fast but retains a melancholic tone in the style of Balflare. "Endless Control" is a personal favorite of mine, also the song that got me into their stuff way back. It starts off with the drum intro of Sonata Arctica's "Blank File" and then quickly bursts into a somehow even more infectious chorus. Just great stuff. While the rest of their 2009 album didn't do much for me initially, listening to the remake brought the other songs back to life as well. Like, listen to how great and catchy "Le Cirque de Sept Couleurs" is, or the two Japanese tracks " 魔境堕天録サリエル " and " 百鬼飛行 ", all of them are crazy good quality power metal. Even the instrumental interlude in the middle of the album is entertaining with its frenetic speed. Really the only downside of the album may be that there's no variety and no room to breathe as every song is a double-bass powerhouse. Also "Perverseness" is slightly less amazing than the rest of the songs, though still great on its own. In any case, people who liked "Change of Generation" should definitely not sleep on this one, it's one of the highest points of UM's career. A-
Highlight: 魔境堕天録サリエル

Veonity - Legend of the Starborn: Disclaimer - this was my first exposure to Veonity. I knew about their previous two albums but the first one looked like the most generic power metal album ever from the cover alone and the second one looked like more of the same, so I never bothered. This one however seemed to generate quite the hype, so I bit. Now on the surface, this looks like everything I could ever want from a power metal album. Good production, great vocals, fantastic emulation of the best and most cheesy bands in the genre (like a mix of Freedom Call, Heavenly and Edguy), anthemic fast-paced songs and catchy sing-along mid-tempo tracks. "Rise Again", "Guiding Light", "Sail Away", "Warrior of the North" and "To The Gods" all carry this burst of positive energy that explodes on you during the chorus and leaves you with a stupid grin on your face after they're done. Guest vocals by Bloodbound's Patrik Selleby on "Freedom Vikings" and ReinXeed's Tommy Johansson on "Winds of Asgard" also hit the nail on the head and give an extra punch to both songs. So yeah the album sounds pretty perfect, but digging a bit deeper soured me on some stuff which brought the album down a few notches. First off, a minor grievance - what the hell is their theme supposed to be? The cover alone shows a viking with the hammer of Thor (?) gazing over Atlantis (??) with planets in the distance alluding to the 'starborn' part of the title. What? This is some "Use the force, Harry - Gandalf" shit, just decide what your theme is before throwing everything together. A more major issue I had with the album is twofold; first, the album is too long. Ticking at almost 70 minutes is already pushing it even if these guys were recording an original masterpiece, but 100 percent of the album is unoriginal (albeit fun) power metal everyone's heard before, and once you've heard the first two songs you have more or less heard everything to be found in this album, so 70 minutes is downright insulting. Secondly, the songs themselves are too long. Again, I wouldn't mind if they had 7-8+ minute songs that did something interesting to justify the length, but almost every other song goes over 6 minutes in the same manner - they repeat the chorus multiple times in the end, they introduce a weird new section right before or after the solo, or they prolong the outro by a minute or so. This gets quickly tiring and if they trimmed the fat they could've easily cut one, maybe two minutes from most of the songs. They could also skip the worst songs; you already have a slower-paced happy power metal track, do you really need two more that sound exactly like this one? If they had fixed these issues, this would've been AOTY contender, but alas. Their sound is good though (if generic), so I'm confident their next album will achieve greatness. B+

Highlight: Sail Away

---
I'm aware I missed some of the bigger albums of 2018, like Angra, or maybe Lione / Conti, but I lacked the time and interest to listen to them and they were covered by other lists anyway. I'd rather place a couple more unknown releases into the spotlight in case they get a new fan, rather than just talk about albums everyone else is talking about. However, I am a bit sad I didn't get around to listening to Guardians of Time, or Orion's Reign, or Judicator; I youtubed all of them and they sounded great, but I didn't listen to them enough to form a coherent and thorough opinion, and then life made me move onto other things. Maybe in the future, eh?

---
MY 2018 POWER METAL AWARDS

Best Band that Came Back to Life: Heavenly
It's (almost) official, Heavenly are back together and there are news of them making an album. I can scarcely believe I'm typing this and I don't know why the entire sub isn't raving about this. There are a few reality-induced setbacks; they haven't made an album in a decade so it's natural to question whether they still 'have' it or if the new album will live up to the hype, and also there's no telling whether they'd get around to finishing the album. Timeless Miracle have been working on their comeback since 2015, scheduled to release in 2017, and now it's 2019 with no news of the album dropping so ... yeah. Regardless, I'm glad to have Heavenly back.

Best Re-Release / Remaster: Dragonforce - Re-Powered Within
I don't know how an improved production could ever change my mind on an album so much, but by god the new version of "The Power Within" almost sounds like a new DF album. You can actually hear the background choir during the chorus of "Fallen World" and it's amazing, and "Die By the Sword" sounds way better than what I remembered. Almost every song has received an update and now I can't go back to the originals. This quickly went from my least favorite DF album to like the 3rd or 4th favorite, which is quite the feat. It's entirely possible that my tastes have shifted since 2012, but in any case they did a bang-up job with the production on this remaster.

This Year's Metal Opera ... that Actually Didn't Suck? : Marius Danielsen's Legend of Valley Doom Part 2
Not a fan of this guy, but apparently this album was way better than the first. I briefly skimmed some songs on youtube and it does sound like the song quality has improved. The lineup is also great; Kiske, Luppi, Heiman, Hayer to name a few, they even brought Tim Owens. That's impressive to say the least. Lyrics are still ass (judging from the lyric video to "Temple of the Ancient God") but you win this one Marius.

This Year's Shitty Metal Opera: Eunomia - The Chornicles of Eunomia Part I
Thankfully Marius's younger brother Peter stepped in to save the day and fill in the shitty power metal opera quota for the year. I'm kinda glad Eunomia exists, otherwise it would pain me to put Melodius Deite in this spot. I'm not sure if it exactly counts as an opera, but Conti sings on it and all of it is insipid tiresome crap, so it fits the bill. Where do the brothers get the money from to bring all these huge names on the studio? Not gonna lie, if I had a bunch of disposable income I would also recruit everyone I could to record a shitty metal opera for the fun of it.

Worst Gimmick Band: Warkings
I forgot to include this award. Nowadays there seem to be a few too many novelty acts in power metal (Powerwolf, Twilight Force, Brothers of Metal) and inevitably not all of them are going to sound good. Warkings is a particular case. Their entire shtick is singing about wars, having stupid names like "The Spartan" or "The Crusader" in order to hide their identity, and wearing costumes and masks on stage like it's 2006 and we're listening to Slipknot. They have two naked woman asses on their album cover cause that apparently sells. All of the above are pretty annoying band traits, but they'd be forgiven if they actually played decent power metal. Hint - they don't. The singer is obviously the one from Serenity and his voice is pleasant enough to listen to, but everything else is mundane, derivative and pretty slow. Harsh vocals a la Amaranthe don't really help their case. It's like they tried to sound like modern Dream Evil, but managed to become even more boring. Not everything here is terrible - I admit "Give Em War" is pretty catchy -, but almost all the songs are insipid, boring retreads of stuff everybody's heard before. Skip.

Best EP: Leverage - The Devil's Turn
There wasn't much competition for the spot AFAIK - it was either gonna be Leverage or Victorius, but Victorius play boring generic power metal so Leverage win by default. The EP's also pretty damn good, Leverage have a cool AOR / power metal sound that I always dug, and this (along with single "Red Moon Over Sonora") makes me very hopeful for their upcoming 2019 album.

Most anticipated album of 2019: Turilli / Lione Rhapsody's album
Everybody loves that one meme about the 85 or so Rhapsodies at this point, but jokes aside I'm stoked. LT's Rhapsody's two albums were my AOTYs for the respective year they came out on, and at the end of the day it's Luca. With Fabio. Plus Conti is singing on it too. All the planets are aligning for my 2019 AOTY right here. I guess I'm also hyped for Pumpkins United but that album is slated for 2020.

Song of the Year: Thaurorod - Feed the Flame
It was going to be either this, or Salieri - Zlata Horecka. I went with this one because it embodies everything I love about power metal; it's cheesy, extremely uplifting and happy, incredibly intense without letting up, the chorus is amazing and gets stuck in your head for ages (just typing this up gave me the urge to hum it), it's all great. It's not a masterpiece of any kind and it doesn't try to be too ambitious, but it delivers exactly what it promises and I can't stop listening to it.

Band of the Year: Unlucky Morpheus
Unlucky Morpheus put out not one, but two excellent albums in 2018. I have a clear preference between the two of them, but there's no denying that both are high quality power metal and Unlucky Morpheus are the best thing Japan has to offer in the genre, at least until Galneryus record their next album.

Best Album Art: Eternity's End - Unyielding
Just look at it! The colors, the landscape, everything is perfect. Felipe Franco, take notes before you make the next boring bluish red / yellow art for a power metal band.



submitted by jasonk12 to PowerMetal [link] [comments]


2018.08.04 05:28 Thomas_Eric In late 2013, I started a translation mod for a video game. Since then, my life is full of Choosing Beggars and people that don't understand how hard it is to translate this game. Starting that translation was one of the biggest mistakes I ever did in my life! (Part 3 😱)

First Part Second Part
TL;DR of the 1st Part: DT (Dumb Teen/ Me!) started a Brazilian translation mod for the game Europa Universalis IV. He translates the name of each country and province in the world to the Old Portuguese Names, so it can represent the games' setting. He then gets negative feedback from two choosing beggars. They proceed to boycott and create a smear campaign against him. He quits for a while and realizes that it wasn't the majority opinion and get back translating the game.
TL;DR of the 2nd Part: Company that makes the game, won't support DT's (Me!) translation mod like they do with other mods. And their DLC practices start getting worse and worse. Meanwhile, a guy contacts DT when he is busy and starts demanding "Service!". Gets blocked by DT. The guy doesn't perceive it well and goes to the comments talking about DT's family. Choosy Beggars of the first part are getting what they deserved.
TL;DR of the 3rd part (THIS PART!) at the bottom.
Thanks to everyone that leave comments below! Here are some comments that I answered in Part Two:
Xx_JUAN_TACO_xX asks: Why tf would someone even care THAT much about a slightly wrong translation of one name in an entire game ? And why do they care at all ?
Lugubrious_Hatchling says: I believe you were right the fisrt [sic] time. "Bizantino" is an adjective, "Bizâncio" is the proper noun.
As always, I would like to apologize if this text has any typos or if it's hard to read, English is NOT my primary language. The events were slightly changed to make the story more simple. Sorry for not posting this update sooner. Part 4 will probably be the ending of the story. If you want to know about my translation process (which is called localization), you can check it out this documentary, which is about The Witcher 3's translation around the world!
In the last post, I've briefly mentioned that I was being contacted by angry people all the time because of the translations not working with new updates and that it would take weeks for it to be working on a newer version. What I failed to mention is how hard it IS for me or a small team of volunteers go to each line of text and exam if they are properly working or not. And I don't mean about parse errors in the file, there are fan-made Clausewitz Engine programs that find that (THANK GOD!). What I'm talking about are the lines which the text are completely changed between versions but paradox didn't change or update the name of the line! Because of those lines, I had 3 tabs opened on Notepad ++ occupying my screen, during the update process:
I'm sorry if I just bored you to death with video game translation technicalities, but this is necessary so you can understand that I'm not lazy and not having the files on advance REALLY killed my mod.
So, on December 2th, 2015 (1 day after the launch of the newest update) I decided that I wasn't going to and it wasn't worthy to spend weeks updating the translation for "The Cossacks" expansion. The Cossacks came out during the end of Brazil's School Year and I couldn't afford to spend the last 2 weeks, which are basically JUST exams, without studying. If I had the files before I probably would've updated the mod - but on one way or another I was already fed up with the constant bullshit that was happening.
And on those last two weeks, I was really focused on passing in every grade. Until one day, during these two weeks, while I was listening to music, I hear a single bip [Message Notification Sound] from steam. And another bip 5 minutes later. I don't check out because like I said, I was really focused on those Math problems. And another bip 2 minutes later. And another bip 1 minute late. And so on. The gaps between the messages got increasingly smaller on each new message. And because of it, I got each time more curious (like "what is happening, that my steam seems to blow over all of the sudden?").
This is where a wild Mr. Yankovic appears. This was a guy that I only had talked twice before and thought I was his BFF. I didn't knew this guy very well, but he was 10 years old than me (on his late 20's) and had like 2,000 games on his steam library. And to my surprise, all of the bips were from him. The conversation was somewhat like this:
Yankovic: Hello
Yankovic: How are you?
Yankovic: Are you there?
Yankovic: I need to talk to you
Yankovic: It's URGENT!
Yankovic: Hello?
Yankovic: Are you ignoring me? ☹️
Yankovic: I'm sorry if I did anything
Yankovic: .
Yankovic: .
(100 messages with a single dot later)
Yankovic: .
Me: Hello??
Yankovic: .
Yankovic: Hi
Me: Why are you flooding me?
Yankovic: I was trying to get your attention.
Me: If I wasn't answering, it probably meant that I'm busy.
Me: Anyway, what is so urgent that you have to talk with me at any cost?
Yankovic: Remember that you told me about that translation mod of yours? I brought Europa Universalis IV today, just to play it. Well, It's not working!!!
Me: Yeah, It's because there was a new game update and I didn't have any time to fix it...
Yankovic: You have to fix it now, so I can go play Europa Universalis! I don't speak English, remember?
Me: Well, my finals are happening this week and I have to allocate all of my time to study. You will have to wait until January, especially with the Holidays coming.
And yes, I mislead the guy, I already knew at the moment I was done translating for the forcible foreseeable future. Thanks never_B_clever! But I didn't want to hear the guy freaking out or being angry!
Yankovic: Well, I thought we were friends!
I can't believe it! He said the REAL offensive F WORD (Friends/ Family)!
Me: Since when friends demand free stuff from their friends to be done at their time. You are not a friend and you are trying to USE me. I am not your slave and I'll not drop my studies and do such a reckless thing because I am your "friend" and because you want the game translated now!
I wish this person saw what I meant and apologized. I wish this person could see the light of reason. But that wasn't Yankovic.
Yankovic: This is easy to update, you are just lazy!
Me: Did you even read what I said? And no THIS. IS. NOT. EASY. TO. UPDATE.
Yankovic: I bet if I knew English, I could do a better translation than you. I saw the screenshots you named India "Bisnaga"! And there isn't even a Brazil in your map!
This is the world in 1444. There is no "Brazil" and united "India" yet! Before I was done processing this horrendous comment he says:
Yankovic: Anyway, get blocked!
And yes, this was a real conversation that I had and this person was an adult. No, it mustn't be! It can't be! No way such an immature reaction can come from an adult. Well, I wasn't prepared for what was about to come NEXT!!!
Thanks for reading my story. I see you next time, for the final part of The Brazilian Translation SAGA!
TL;DR of the 3rd part: "Friend" floods me with messages. Turns out it wasn't something serious and he just wanted me to work for him and forget about my school work. I turn it down. He gets pissed.
Edit 1: Typo
Edit 2: Huge Typo!
Edit 3: Final Part is here
submitted by Thomas_Eric to ChoosingBeggars [link] [comments]


2018.07.20 02:29 throwittomebro Removed comments from Economics subreddits - 07/19/18

they did live through asbestos rife 80's, but then again, their children ate the paint chips.
Comment removed from /Economics - xtz8 - Created on 07/19/18 00:34:46 UTC - permalink
if they dont' vote, I dson't care long they live.
Comment removed from /Economics - xtz8 - Created on 07/19/18 00:35:16 UTC - permalink
You're garbage
Comment removed from /Economics - soverysmart - Created on 07/19/18 02:19:00 UTC - permalink
Honestly, I think it boils down to what a dollar today can buy you relative to generations 20+ years ago, if you're looking for raw numbers. The arguments surrounding the differences between Millennials and say, Boomers, tends to revolve more around the culture than the financial aspect, IMO. Like, every single Millennial has a smartphone in 2018... yet Boomers were purchasing 1980 quality computers for $1k. There is a serious disconnect. Folks in 2018 have never had it better throughout history.
Additionally - Millennials tend to not budget or live within their means relative to previous generations. Adolescence has essentially been extended to 25+ years of age, it seems.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 02:39:20 UTC - permalink
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Please msg me for any concerns. Any feedback is appreciated!
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - mailmygov-throes - Created on 07/19/18 03:15:54 UTC - permalink
'Why Preach to a dead Choir'
Comment removed from /Economics - frisbee1986 - Created on 07/19/18 04:20:37 UTC - permalink
that 30 year old boomer with no buying power
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - XxQuick - Created on 07/19/18 04:41:05 UTC - permalink
Folks in 2018 have never had it better throughout history.
This is pretty glib. There's plenty of solid evidence to suggest that economic well-being has stagnated or even deceased for large portions of the population, and doubly so when compared to the living standards of the richest. Add to that the rise of concentrated poverty, decreasing economic mobility, and declining life expectancies and we have a much different picture than the one you're painting.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Calvo_fairy - Created on 07/19/18 04:48:32 UTC - permalink
I'm a transitional birth year between millennial and gen z. I've been privileged so far, so the aspect of technological advancement and information access is what immediately popped into my mind too, and I do think that there is some basic financial ignorance among some of my acquaintances who complain most about financial issues are also the most fiscally irresponsible, one girl who's aspiring to be an artist is always complaining about just barely having money to buy concert tickets or weed, but I think there are deeper issues at play as well. It's more difficult to get a job that will support growth at minimum wage, less ability to work your way up corporate ladders. I think a major issue is with the unnecessary price inflation by universities. To me, it makes no sense that even though I have all my degree requirements, I'll have to remain another year to acquire the required 120 hours, potentially taking nothing but low-level classes with no application to my field and no relevance to my life, these are beyond general education credits mind you. Also, I kind of resent having any of my tuition at all going towards a sports program. If the sport isn't economically self sufficient, why the hell are we supporting it? Or the multiplexes with exercise equipment or the free concerts - it's nice to give students access to these things, but we're still the ones paying for it. All we really need is classrooms and libraries, give students the choice to decide what's economically viable beyond that.
Another thing that I think a lot about is the deficit, ever growing. Even now during the longest bull market in history, we're spending an incredible amount more than revenues and not just that, we're cutting revenue with tax cuts and increasing spending. It won't be the older generation that has to pay for that. I'm not saying my peers are calculating their future on the basis of paying back the deficit, but when we're talking about the future well being of my generation, there's that looming presence, that is our cross to bear, so even if our wages increase proportionally with inflation, we won't actually be making as much because of the public debt we all have a part of.
I think I've landed in some middle ground, when I saw the question initially, I had the same thought as you, but thinking about my friends who haven't been as lucky as I have been, I do worry about their finances going forward. We're standing on a precipice of absolute uncertainty. We're trying to prepare to serve in an economy that will be unrecognizable in a decade, our costs to get good jobs is going up without good reason, and we can't actually tell if that job will still be there once we graduate, our public debt is growing, we stand to enter the work force at the end of the bull market, and having grown up in the great recession, that carries heavy weight. I feel like I'm in a race against the clock to get job security before a downturn, and I fear for my friends two years behind me because I don't think thy have a chance at all. We haven't experienced any recession other than that big one, we have no baseline for normality and way to tell if what was normality will continue to be.
There is a cultural aspect, related in part to the above, but deeper as well. Who really knows what impact the internet has had on us, what's pushing cultural tendencies. There's general fear, anxiety, and... I'm not sure if angst is the right word here or not, but something along that sentiment. Maybe it's due to the absolute uncertainty of the future, the idea that the world is simply different is a central theme, just look at our popular media. No Country For Old Men, the first couple seasons of Bojack Horseman, Rick and Morty are the first to come to mind. I watched The Departed last night, and I guess the blurring lines is prevalent in that one too. Personally I recently found out my grandfather, the die-hard conservative politician, had recently turned agnostic. In fact, I think half or more of my large extended family has turned against religion, in spite of our heavy Catholic origins. I don't know if it's a cause or an effect, a matter of changing relationship to faith, or duty to some higher power, religious or not. I don't think anyone really could know, but the times, they are a changin' and to just pin everything on a matter of millennial stupidity feels overly simplistic to me. I'm not saying there's not some truth to it, but it's overly simplistic. I can't say if the world was ever black and white, but I can say that now it feels like it's every shade of grey imaginable.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Lord0ftheFlies - Created on 07/19/18 04:55:41 UTC - permalink
A funny anecdote that comes to mind is my uncle, who's life plan was to own a chain of Blockbusters, which wasn't a bad choice in the late 1980s, but was luckily convinced by my aunt to go back to school to learn software engineering. It kind of feels like any one of us could make that same mistake now, go into a field that will be dead in a decade.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Lord0ftheFlies - Created on 07/19/18 05:01:15 UTC - permalink
yes good economics is apparently supply side knobslobbing, who knew
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - HumphreyPumpernickel - Created on 07/19/18 05:33:13 UTC - permalink
Just look at the price of lobsters now compared to the past.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - tdagarime - Created on 07/19/18 05:39:22 UTC - permalink
What do you mean by "supply side"?
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Calvo_fairy - Created on 07/19/18 05:47:00 UTC - permalink
I think what he meant is that people today have access to items that, today, are very common but 20 years ago were an absolute luxury. Just think about it. Even some of the poorest people in society still have refrigerators, televisions, a car, air conditioning, etc. Those things aren't really essential to survive, as humans have done it for thousands of years, however we've progressed so far that those luxuries are now almost seen as essential. The poor people of today are living with more luxuries than the wealthiest people did even 60 years ago.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - uselesstriviadude - Created on 07/19/18 11:05:41 UTC - permalink
I disagree completely. You can not say today we have smartphones so everything is better. Of course technology evolved.
The difference I see is that the bombers had jobs with security, they could get a loan for a house, they could take vacations,... Way less stress about the future. The so called millenials got robbed big time.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - SchreiX - Created on 07/19/18 11:08:46 UTC - permalink
Hi thanks for posting
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - gloverpark - Created on 07/19/18 11:41:46 UTC - permalink
I’m not so sure I agree with the “live within your means” ideaology...
To live within range of a major city for work is expensive. Last I checked, the median price for a 1 Bedroom in NYC or SF was 3300/month
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Dreadsin - Created on 07/19/18 11:46:20 UTC - permalink
You clearly are not living within your means and/or budgeting correctly.
Going out to eat was considered a rarity for the average family in 1960. Maybe a weekend vacation once a year - as a family. A single 25-year old can go to a few music festivals a year and maybe a trip the beach no problem.
It's seriously laughable that Millennials think they have it worse off than previous generations. Try writing your thesis without access to the internet in the 21st century and get back to me.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 11:48:45 UTC - permalink
I take any work from Piketty with a truckload of salt. The 2nd source has more to do with lifetime income inequality between and within the genders - not that economic well-being has "decreased".
To be frank, income inequality means nothing. What exactly is the issue with JK Rowling earning $100M in 2017?
How we measure poverty continues to rise overtime. What constitutes "poverty" in the US in 2018, would be upper-middle class 50 years ago.
Economic mobility hasn't decreased - in fact, your second source seems to claim to have found the opposite.
The decline in life expectancy fell in 2015 the first time since 1970... so that's a bit of an odd claim as how Millennials are worse off than previous generations. So we are worse off because the life expectancy fell to 78.6 Years in 2016 vs. a life expectancy of 67.1 years in 1970? Come on, dude.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 12:02:26 UTC - permalink
If you can't afford $3300/Month for rent, then you cannot afford to live in SF/NYC. That would be considered "not living within your means".
It isn't an ideology - it's being cognizant of your situation in life at a certain point in time.
I'm not sure I would consider the average family's life in 1960 "luxurious" as compared to today.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 12:06:37 UTC - permalink
I "clearly" am not living within my means?
I think you are clearly an idiot.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - SchreiX - Created on 07/19/18 12:14:11 UTC - permalink
Not you personally - "you" as in the average Millennial.
You clearly are not living within your means and/or budgeting correctly. (if you do not feel you have "job security", cannot get a loan for a house, or take vacations - assuming you are at a comparable spot in life to what you are comparing yourself to).
That ought to help clarify.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 12:17:23 UTC - permalink
But a smartphone is in many cases not just a "luxury" anymore, but a virtual requirement in order to participate in modern society (unless you have another internet-capable computelaptop) - and an absolute requirement for getting a job beyond the most absolute menial. A computer in 1980 was not.
Doesn't it make more sense to compare how likely a baby boomer was to attain what was considered middle-class living standards, vs. how likely a millenial is to attain modern middle-class living standards? Otherwise, what's to stop you from dismissing all living standard concerns out of hand because 9th century French peasants had a shit life?
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - concussedYmir - Created on 07/19/18 12:23:23 UTC - permalink
I don't need to clarify my statement though. I meant you, as in you personally.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - SchreiX - Created on 07/19/18 12:27:37 UTC - permalink
Sounds like you're taking this all a bit personally, bud. Shape up and get your act together.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 12:28:25 UTC - permalink
> Otherwise, what's to stop you from dismissing all living standard concerns out of hand because 9th century French peasants had a shit life?
That's a good point, well put. I suppose my argument doesn't really make sense when you think about it.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - uselesstriviadude - Created on 07/19/18 12:38:09 UTC - permalink
You are boring. If you wish to contribute, learn the basics first, please.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - SchreiX - Created on 07/19/18 12:40:14 UTC - permalink
Millennials got robbed big time.
That is the crux of your argument. Then you fall back on insulting someone because they criticize your argument. Like I said - shape up and get your act together.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 12:44:01 UTC - permalink
I have nothing more to add, but rather just wanted to say that your grace in bowing to a different argument in a debate speaks volumes to both your character and intellect.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - concussedYmir - Created on 07/19/18 12:47:11 UTC - permalink
Because poor people enjoy being poor obviously.
Comment removed from /Economics - kinypornaccount - Created on 07/19/18 12:55:39 UTC - permalink
I'm trying to be more open with opposing viewpoints. It seems to be lacking these days, and you know what they say. "Be the change you wish to see..."
Have a nice day.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - uselesstriviadude - Created on 07/19/18 13:02:18 UTC - permalink
Insulting someone that thinks people born in the 80s and after are collectively not living within their means and that's why they can't afford to buy houses, have secure jobs?
Why would I do that, you "bud"(you personally) are doing a good job already.
Peace.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - SchreiX - Created on 07/19/18 13:03:17 UTC - permalink
Idea: We revoke birthright citizenship, but only for Michael Anton & deport him.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - healthcare-analyst-1 - Created on 07/19/18 13:05:46 UTC - permalink
I think that's a bit of an oversimplification. "Just move somewhere cheaper" doesn't really work for a lot of people, or often is not even a good choice.
Suppose that I am a software engineer looking to make the most of my career when I am young to set me up for when I am older. The San Francisco Bay Area will yield the highest number of high-paying jobs, with the most room for advancement, and the most equivalent tech talent. Comparatively, it could be cheap to live and work somewhere like Ohio but you're not going to be able to advance your career as quickly. It's just not an unreasonable strategy to move to the Bay Area for a young engineer in this case.
However, the average salary of a software engineer is 111,600 , but the average rent for an apartment is 4,023 . Your take-home every month would be about 6,300 after taxes. Realistically, I know people who live there for ~$1800/month, but they are the very very lucky ones who found a good place.
Now let's say you move somewhere "cheaper". Maybe you move to Seattle. The average rent per month is around $1700 for a rough estimate, with a salary of 106,611. It's still expensive.
The truth is, city areas are just extremely competitive by nature now. It seemed like work was a lot more distributed back in the day.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Dreadsin - Created on 07/19/18 13:25:48 UTC - permalink
Is there any literature on whether there's a causal relationship between alumni spreading bad economics and a department's PhD program ranking? /s
Comment removed from /badeconomics - YIRS - Created on 07/19/18 13:50:21 UTC - permalink
I think it is a tad disingenuous to point to one of the most expensive places to live in the US as an example of the hardships facing Millennials relative to previous generations.
If you are willing to make the sacrifices to live in SF because you think it is the optimal route for you in life and your career... that's fine. Different people value different things and have different goals at different periods in their lives. My suggestion here is that if someone is unhappy with their living arrangement in SF, they can plan to move from the area to somewhere their standard of living will be higher.
But that is a very different conversation than "Millennials having it worse off than previous generations".
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 13:55:23 UTC - permalink
The stigma of taking food stamps (EBT) is deminished as well.
Comment removed from /Economics - wpiman - Created on 07/19/18 13:56:08 UTC - permalink
woooosh
Comment removed from /Economics - Ka--Mai - Created on 07/19/18 13:57:07 UTC - permalink
You mean trickle down economics is classist bullshit? Who knew?
/s
Comment removed from /Economics - SmilesQuietly - Created on 07/19/18 13:58:44 UTC - permalink
I would say my point is that the world is FAR more competitive now. Simply moving somewhere with a higher standard of living is not an option if you want to simultaneously advance your career. You will stifle the rest of your entire life.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Dreadsin - Created on 07/19/18 14:16:05 UTC - permalink
This but unironic.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - wyldcraft - Created on 07/19/18 14:16:19 UTC - permalink
I’m 21 now and have some opinions on alcohol.
Hennessy is cool but tastes horrible.
Fireball is the best.
All beer tastes like piss anyways so you might as well just drink rolling rock.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - Webby915 - Created on 07/19/18 14:20:24 UTC - permalink
So is the U.S gonna invade Texas?
Comment removed from /Economics - AnInfluxOfBees - Created on 07/19/18 14:20:44 UTC - permalink
Harvard is in tears
Comment removed from /badeconomics - Webby915 - Created on 07/19/18 14:21:59 UTC - permalink
Or they enjoy their benefits and won't volunteerly remove themselves after they no longer qualify.
Comment removed from /Economics - Burninator17 - Created on 07/19/18 14:26:51 UTC - permalink
What qualifies as sub elite?
Comment removed from /badeconomics - YIRS - Created on 07/19/18 14:28:46 UTC - permalink
This is the same tool that just announced, “no recession in sight until 2024.” What an unreliable lying douchebag puppet.
Comment removed from /Economics - thatboygriff - Created on 07/19/18 14:30:51 UTC - permalink
Jade Helm!!!!!
Comment removed from /Economics - zsreport - Created on 07/19/18 14:31:21 UTC - permalink
You should include the costs of leaving your social network in your little economic model. Otherwise it's pretty worthless and you just come across as an ignorant asshole.
Comment removed from /Economics - sleepeejack - Created on 07/19/18 14:37:56 UTC - permalink
We'll just have to simply disagree, then.
I have a very difficult time believing that choosing to live somewhere other than SF will stifle the rest of your entire life. That just seems ridiculous to me. Why couldn't you live in any other US city with half the cost of living, if not more so?
I'd rather earn $80k in Augusta, GA than $120k in SF any day of the week.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 14:44:18 UTC - permalink
Just to chime in here - I don't think that the reasoning is absolute. When the post is about "How does the wellbeing of Millennials compare to previous generations", it certainly does need to be taken into consideration.
I don't think anyone would argue that Millennials have it worse off than 9th century French peasants. But time and time again, we do see Millennials allege they have a harder life than their parents - which simply is not the case.
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - Copper_The_Hound - Created on 07/19/18 14:55:09 UTC - permalink
I call bullshit on you. Not everyone can go into those fields. Im physically disabled, so fuck you.
Comment removed from /Economics - badgerhairs123 - Created on 07/19/18 14:55:15 UTC - permalink
any school weeby doesn't go to.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - centurion44 - Created on 07/19/18 14:57:54 UTC - permalink
what school does webby go to
Comment removed from /badeconomics - YIRS - Created on 07/19/18 14:58:49 UTC - permalink
Your original claim was there's literally no full time jobs where you are at. Turns out there are plenty of full time jobs, just maybe not ones that you can do due to disability. That changes things a lot
Comment removed from /Economics - Fireballs - Created on 07/19/18 15:01:10 UTC - permalink
It's irrelevant, the point is he has an inferiority complex than manifests itself in stating all schools are worse than his school.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - centurion44 - Created on 07/19/18 15:04:04 UTC - permalink
“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.”
Comment removed from /Economics - Rev2Land - Created on 07/19/18 15:12:33 UTC - permalink
How would being physically disabled prevent you from being a paper-pushing manager? And the vast vast majority of people can do those jobs.
Comment removed from /Economics - Karstone - Created on 07/19/18 15:20:05 UTC - permalink
Sub-elite wasn’t a like negative adjective.
Sub elite runners are people who run sub 3 hours marathons but aren’t winning.
Sub elite in this case is any undergrad Econ program that isn’t UC/MIT/idk maybe Caltech.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - Webby915 - Created on 07/19/18 15:29:10 UTC - permalink
That’s the old webby, new webby is openly self hating while also elitist.
You’re out of date.
Comment removed from /badeconomics - Webby915 - Created on 07/19/18 15:30:54 UTC - permalink
I need money NOW. Not in 5 or 10 years. Hard to go to school when you can't afford food and shelter. I also refuse to go to college and incur huge amounts of debt. Defeats the purpose. Millions of people are in the same boat as me. Use some logic and stop talking out of your ass.
Comment removed from /Economics - badgerhairs123 - Created on 07/19/18 15:32:05 UTC - permalink
Are you retarded? Have you not seen the automation take over jobs, not to mention illegal immigrants taking jobs for much lower pay? Yes many people can do thise jobs, but companies are also making those jobs obsolete. Do some research on the job market and the economy.
Comment removed from /Economics - badgerhairs123 - Created on 07/19/18 15:34:22 UTC - permalink
“The economy is so strong right now it’s going to produce lower deficits. I probably should have said future deficits,” Kudlow said.
Huh, way to save yourself.
Comment removed from /Economics - TinderForMidgets - Created on 07/19/18 15:39:14 UTC - permalink
Wal-Mart has classes to teach people to sign up for welfare. Just saying.
Comment removed from /Economics - grungies1138 - Created on 07/19/18 15:55:54 UTC - permalink
There is a little bit of meaning to income inequality. When it gets TOO high, the social contract dissolves and the value of a life for the people in the bottom 5% becomes worth nothing compared to the chance of stealing something from the top 5%. See much of South America, I'm thinking of FARC and Brazil.
This example specifically comes to mind:
In 1999, several gunmen attempted to kidnap his children on their way to school.[14] The incident prompted Lemann to relocate permanently to Switzerland
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - YaDunGoofed - Created on 07/19/18 15:57:57 UTC - permalink
Looks like you posted a wikipedia article, let me summarize it for you...
Click here if you'd like me to stop bugging you.
Jorge Paulo Lemann Jorge Paulo Lemann is a Brazilian investor. As of January 2018, Lemann was ranked as the 29th richest person in the world by Forbes, with an estimated net worth of US$29.7 billion. He is the richest person in Brazil. As of 2015, Forbes Brazil listed Lemann as the top entry for the Richest Brazilians list.
Image
[** [About](https://np.reddit.com/ultimatewikibot/wiki/index) ** [Source code](https://github.com/brrm/ultimatewikibot) Downvote to remove ]
Comment removed from /AskEconomics - ultimatewikibot - Created on 07/19/18 15:58:09 UTC - permalink
submitted by throwittomebro to reconomics_mod_audit [link] [comments]


2018.06.19 18:30 Chariotwheel Spring 2018 Retrospective

Time moves on and so does the Anime Industry. It wasn't a good season for voice actors or anime production staff that spend their time on the internet.

March

Sora yori mo Tooi Basho x National Institute of Polar Research Collab Event

The Japanese National Institute of Polar Research held an collaboration event with A Place Further Than The Universe, anime series about a group of girls joining an expedition to Anctarctica. It was so succesful that it was extended.

April

Flip Flappers' Kiyotaka Oshiyama and ex-Bones producer Yuki Nagano start a new studio

Studios fall, studios rise. This time a new one sprung into live. Studio Durian was founded by two very liked industry characters.

A-1 Pictures' Kōenji Studio Rebrands as CloverWorks

One of A-1 Pictures sub-studios got a name change to Cloverworks, which was from there one credited for Darling in the FranXX instead of A-1 Pictures.

Isao Takahata passes away

Industry legend Isao Takagata, known for his impressive work at Ghibli and the anime Heidi, died at the age of 82.

Japanese Government Plans to Ask Net Providers to Block Unauthorized Manga Sites

In an continued effort to fight piracy the Japanese government planned further measures to protect copyright in the internet.

Megalo Box so old-school, it's produced in SD

In an odd occurrence boxing anime Megalo Box premiered in the now unusual format of 720x405, making it look visibly older.

Golden Kamuy's CGI Bears amuse and bamboozle audience

While Megalo Box confused viewers by going backwards, Golden Kamui did the same by going forwards. In a failed attempt of the director to make the bears in the anime stand out as otherworldly by using CGI the bears turned out looking very out of place and a bit goofy, leading to ridicule and confusion among viewers.

My Hero Academia x Avengers Infinity War collab.

Infinity Wars came down on many countries and Japan got an interesting piece of cross-promotion, utilizing super hero manga and anime Boku no Hero Academia.

Anime Industry Report 2017 in English

The Anime Industry Report for 2017 released in English, showing among other things continued general growth, especially stemmed by increased foreign revenue.

Anime Producer Yuichi Fukushima Endures Harassment Over DARLING in the FRANKXX Episode

After a divisive episode of Darling in the FranXX staff members of the anime production received a massive amount of threats from upset fans.

Crunchyroll Launches Brazilian Linear TV Anime Block

Crunchyroll launched a small one-hour segment in Brazilian television featuring Black Clover and Re:Zero.

Gunsmith Cats Anime Kickstarter Campaign Reaches All Stretch Goals

The Kickstarter for the Blu-Ray release of the old OVA anime Gunsmith Cats reached all its goals.

Märchen Mädchen episodes 11 and 12 will each air in May on AT-X, Tokyo MX and BS11.

After ending at episode 10 due to heavy production issues the last two episodes of the troubled Märchen Mädchen will receive air time on the telly. It was later postponed again.

Race Horse Special Week dies

Shortly after the anime series Uma Musume begun, the real-life equivalent of the protagonist Special Week died.

Love Live! Sunshine!! Director Comments on Twitter Harassment, Considers Legal Action

Darling in the FranXX was not the only victim of wide-scale harassment. Love Live! Sunshine!! staff got into heavy water too.

May

Twin Engine's president Koji Yamamoto says that in the past, home video sales were 90% of the business revenue. Now they're 10%.

Koji Yamamoto talks about the change in revenue and the importance of physical sales.

Hiromasa Yonebayashi on why Japanese directors go wild for Britain’s cuisine, climate, chintz – and unionised miners

Hiromasa Yonebayashi, director of the recent movie Mary and the Witch's flower, explains why Japanese people are so enthralled by British culture and history.

Voice Actor Yuichiro Umehara Hospitalized Due to Autoimmune Disease

Yuichiro Umehara, who voices no less than four characters in anime this season, has to take a break due to illness.

Ginyu Force in the Eurovision Song Contest

The Eurovision Song Contest terrorized the world again, but among the darkness a light shone brightly. Hungary's team included a Ginyu Force pose in their performance. On that note, Israel's mad Chickenlady also included a lot of Japanese flair in her performance, including a line about Pikachu.

Goku's Japanese Voice Actress Awarded Lifetime Honor

Voice actress Masako Nozawa received a lifetime award for her longtime performance as Son Goku by The Foundation for Promoting Sound Growth of Children and the Child Welfare Foundation.

TV Tokyo Establishes License Business Division

Broadcaster TV Tokyo established a division specifically for licenses. It's divided into three parts, one of them being Anime.

Sora Amamiya Diagnosed with Chorditis Vocalis

Voice actress and singer Sora Amamiya (TrySail) was diagnosed with inflamed vocal chords

Hayao Miyazaki bids tearful farewell to fellow Ghibli founder Isao Takahata

Many people gave their regards to the dead anime legend, one of them the equally legendary founder of Ghibli, Hayou Miyazaki himself who gave a heartfelt mourn to his deceased comrade.

Jose Lavat dies

Voice actor Jose Lavat, narration voice of Hispanic Dragonball Z passed away.

Toei Animation’s Mismanaged Attempt To Improve Anime’s Working Conditions

Toei Animation attempted to better Working Conditions, but sadly only managed to make it worse by misidentifying the core problems.

Codate Establishes 'No Pictures' Animation Studio for Shorts

Video content company Codate starts a new Anime studio with an interesting concept. Instead of animating everything from scratch it will use pre-existing content and royalty-free material for short anime.

Chinese bilibili video service to produce anime

Japan is not the only place where movement in animation happened. Bilibli, China's huge video platform that already featured anime will now start to produce its own.

MyAnimeList compromised

The international communities biggest anime list site made some trouble as they first deactivated their API and then went down, forcefully locking out people from their accounts and flushing passwords.

Hisako Kanemoto Takes Hiatus to Study Abroad

Voice actress Hisako Kanemoto took a break from working to see the world outside of Japan.

Kadokawa Apologizes to Boogiepop and Others Artist for Anime Miscommunication

Due miscommunication only a part of the character designs for the upcoming anime Boogiepop and Others were given to the original author for approval. He tweeted in much dissatisfaction and Kadokawa reacted promptly by apologizing and promptly starting an internal investigation on what went wrong. The sky has cleared and light novel author Kouji Ogata gave his consent for the project to move forward.

June

MyAnimeList returns

After almost a week of downtime and confusion, MyAnimeList returned, albeit not with all its features. It returned the library and the anime lists first, promising the return of everything else in the upcoming weeks.

Kiniro Mosaic house featured on the BBC

Hands off the BBC. The British broadcaster featured the house from the cute-girls-doing-british-things anime Kiniro Mosaic in a report both on the telly and on it's website. It tells the tale of a house that profited heavily from the anime as a lot of Japanese travel to it specifically to see the house from the anime. This is to the point where the owner of the house created a tour specifically for Kiniro Mosaic fans showing all locations from the anime.

Nidome no Jinsei wo Isekai de voice actors stepped down among racism

Not only is the content of the light novels very racist, the author himself went on racist tirades on Twitter, prompting four voice actors to leave the project shining a huge light on the racism of the material.

Nidome no Jinsei wo Isekai de has been cancelled

Shortly after the voice actors stepped down, the anime project was, in a rare occurrence, cancelled altogether.

To Be Heroine Localisation upsets creators

Usually, creators don't care that much about the localisation in another country, but To Be Heroine was treated very badly in Japan and subsequently the worldwide release based on it. In only three episodes more than 10 minutes of content were already cut away, almost every single scene has some kind of edit, greatly upsetting it's creators.

Voice Actress Hiroko Konishi is exposing VA industry "hidden rules" on her Twitter

Voice actress Hiroko Konishi wrote on Twitter about hidden rules in her industry.

"Comic Girls" Voice Actress Hikaru Akao Suffers Injury

Voice actress Hikaru Akao missed a scheduled Nico-Stream related to her anime by breaking her arm after falling.

"God knows..." has been removed from YouTube due to a copyright claim by Kadokawa

After more than 10 years of staying up and being tolerated, the youtube Videos of Haruhi's "God Knows" performance was taken down by Kadokawa.

Production IMS went bankrupt and ceased all activities.

Anime Studio Production IMS, known for works such as Date A Live II, The Testament of Sister New Devil and Haifuri, closed its doors after months of struggle. Back in December there were already reports that IMS animators weren't paid anymore.

Teen Arrested for Bomb Threats Against Love Live! Sunshine!! Concerts

Some lad that wanted to be "noticed" threatened to bomb Love Live concerts.

Bomberman, Beyblade Designer Shoji Mizuno Passes Away at 58

Character designer Shoji Mizuno dies at the age of 58.

1st Foreign Female Pro Shogi Player Inspires Anime Short

Polish Shogi Player Karolina Styczyńska was the first foreign woman to become an official Pro-Player and received a lot of attention and an anime short.

anime

New Episode Discussion Bot

After Holo was absent for a while, Bainos created a new, more murderous bot in the form of AutoLovepon who now posts the daily seasonal anime discussion threads.

The Return of the Community Spotlight

Also absent for a while and returned: Community Spotlights that highlight other anime-specific subreddits.

AMAs

Name Job Work Location
Michael Sinterniklaas and Stephanie Sheh Voice Actors Lu Over the Wall anime
submitted by Chariotwheel to anime [link] [comments]


2018.06.11 16:33 AsianBeast1996 Covington's rise from /r/MMA's perspective

In direct contrast to Robert Whittaker, King Colby Covington is everything you don’t want to see in an ambassador of the sport. However, if everyone in the UFC were like Whittaker it’d be somewhat bland. Although I think Colby’s a gimmick is kinda shitty, I find it entertaining that it gets a rise out of everyone and the results speak for itself.

#NERDBASH2018

2014 August 23: UFC Fight Night 48 – KO win vs. Anying Wang
Pre-fight: Fight Thread
  • “Ahaha colby coming out to Van halen, Nice!” – Sedita3
  • “Fuck yeah Oregon State!” – ZombiesTMS
Post- fight: Fight Thread
  • “Covington has some solid GnP” – silva209
  • “Colby Covington was like "fuck letting the judges decide this..."” – diamondsealtd
  • “Very good performance by Covington, he did not let off the gas at all. He was in control the whole fight.” – warriorx559
 
2014 October 15: Notice - AMA series – Win vs /MMA (121 comments)
  • Q: “Who at ATT gets the hottest groupies?” – [deleted]
  • Q: “Do you foresee an issue with the likelihood of ATT welterweight fighters fighting each other?” – CanadianHour4
    • A: “I do not an issue because we are all in this for the same reason and thats to be the best in the world.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “After your big win in China, were you disappointed when you were booked to fight in Brazil? It seems like a lot of travel, and Brazilian fans seem a bit harsh.
    Also: Have you ever used one of T-Wood's Dude Wipes? If yes, Would you recommend them?” – Oswald_Cobblepot_
    • A: “lol are u kidding me? They can book me anywhere in the world, does not matter if its in enemy territory. every opportunity fuels me to be better then the time before.. No i did not try the dude wipes but tyron had given me some but i guess i got cold feet.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “do you have a different mindset training for the UFC fights than when you were training for any other competitions/companies? also does Joe Soto have any idea how everyone became a fan of his when he fought TJ?” – barafundlebumbler
    • A: “no i do not have a different mindset because in every competition i give 110% and i want to dominate every opportunity i get. yes joe soto has an idea because after his fight his social media has blown up” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “Thanks for doing this!! Where would you like to be in a year, and whats its like backstage at an event?” – insaneinthebearbrain
    • A: “I would like to be in the top ten by this time next year. Being backstage at an event is awesome, theres no atmosphere like it.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “Your opinion on if you had to fight Ben Askren one day?” – saltymcfistfight
  • Q: “What was Jones like as a roommate?” – [deleted]
    • A: “he was cool, i remember the first day we met and we had to decide who would get top or bottom bunk and he let me take bottom because i had a sleep walking problem and didn't want to get hurt.. we always pushed each other in and out of the wrestling room. - ColbyCovington
    • A: “Beside the obsessively loud snoring he was a good roommate.” - ColbyCovington
    • A: “He was a little messy at time and did not know how to cook but was a super funny dude and always had a smile on his face.” - ColbyCovington
    • A: “most the time chasing girls but we played all kinds of different sports and games together because we both were super competitive.” - ColbyCovington
 
2014 November 8: UFC Fight Night 56 – SUB win vs. Wagner Silva
Pre-fight: Fight Thread
  • “Jouban could fuck me right now and I'd be okay with it” – [deleted]
Post-fight: Highlights (8 comments), Fight thread
  • “im a stickler for when fighters change grips during rnc . call me weird but i dont know why its a technique i enjoy watchin” – [deleted]
  • “I pretty sure Colby Covington broke his toe or his foot, making the finish even more impressive.” – Silver44
2014 November 19: Notice - AMA series – Win vs /MMA
  • Q: “How did it feel to go into Brazil, fight a Brazilian, completely dominate, and silence that crowd? Any sweeter, or just another win?” – DirtychrisT
    • A: “They weren't silent, they were booing. It felt better than anything I've ever felt.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “Hi Colby, whats your favourite celebration meal post weight cut and fight?” – whatsthetimemate
    • A: “Post weight cut: Sushi.. Post fight: something greasy.. Speaking of that, I'm about to go get some pizza.. Off the record.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “It's cool to see you getting a lot of hype so I'm wondering if it were up to you, would you rather slowly climb the ladder or would you wanna get fast tracked to big fights?” – KabobNurmagomedov
    • A: “Life is all about the timing, but I want to be higher up on the card. With all the hard work I put in, I know the opportunities are around the corner.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “How much weight do you cut for a fight and what do you tend to weigh when you actually step into the octagon? Also what are you feelings on the extreme weight cutting in MMA, are you for or against it?” – ThugjitsuMaster
    • A: “I cut like 15 lbs.. I usually just hydrate back to that or like 182 lbs maybe. I'm against it man, that's why I don't do it.. it shortens your life and messes up your body. But people should be able to do whatever they want.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “Sherdog says your nickname is "Chaos". How did you get that nickname?” – deadmanRise
  • Q: “I know you got a good story or two to tell brother!” – ReggieNobles
    • A: “There was one.. it involved like 10 plus sized gals, a midget, and an avocado.. But that's all I can say.. Statute of limitations.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “UFC press release said you broke your foot.. how & when did that happen exactly? Did it effect your fight?
    How's it feeling now?” – bananaslamma69
    • A: “I felt it break on a head kick early in the 1st.. Yea it effected my fight but I knew I had to do whatever it took to win the fight. I'm in a boot tryin to heal.” - ColbyCovington
  • Q: “I'm a broke college kid hope you like bud light” – Reduxy
    • A: “Sorry bro, I remember how it was in college. I'll buy you a beer... A couple.” - ColbyCovington
 
2015 January 23 Twitter – Attempted Verbal TKO vs. Cathal Pendred: "I will bury the man like the British did to the Irish." (150 comments)
  • “He said in his AMA he waited his whole life to get big fights and now he's stuck desperately trying to be controversial to get a fight against one of the worst fighters in the division...” – [deleted]
  • “Lack of intelligence probably has more to do with his statement than trying to be controversial. Though it is probably a mix of both.” – CleanShirt27
  • “This tweet doesn't make me want to see Pendred win, as much as I wanna see this guy beaten and cut from the UFC.
    Bring back Palhares and feed this guy to him.” – poolsofmaroon
  • “That's a pretty insensitive and ill-advised quip even if the goal is to create hype/drama.
    Could you imagine if a white guy was like "I'm gonna make (insert black fighter) my bitch just like my ancestors did." Cue the apology tour and never fighting in prime time again.
    This one will probably get a pass from the UFC but I doubt any Irish fans are gonna have a short memory about it.” – Cthulu2014
 
2015 May 25: UFC 187 – UD win vs. Mike Pyle
Pre-fight: Announcement (6 comments)
  • “Isn't that Jon Jones former college roommate who basically said "yeah, this seems like something Jon would do" after the shit went down?” – xjayroox
  • “I'm glad Covington finally has an elite and experience opponent, Covington is one of those guys outside of the top 15 who I feel has a lot of potential.” – megabox
  • “That's a good fight. He's been campaigning for a fight for a while now (especially with Pendred lol) and he finally got a fight.” – KabobNurmagomedov
Post-fight: Highlights (23 comments)
  • “Deep choke. The most amazing aspect is colby getting out of it, a lot of people wouldn't be able to get out of that position..” – [deleted]
  • “Bit of a fence grab that Colby used to turn against the choke. Probably not that meaningful, but enough of a reason to help me root against him.” – TheD33Man
  • “covington wrestle fucked pyle to a decision 2 x 30-27 and 29-28” – srochum
 
2015 December 12: UFC 194 – SUB loss vs. Warlley Alves
Pre-fight: Announcemet (5 comments)
  • “Fucking Siiiick.” – [deleted]
  • “Good fight..two legit prospects” – snoopzprodigy
  • “Let's see if Covington tries his hardest to put everyone to sleep again.” – VinceOnAPlane
  • “Guess not every fight on 194 can be a blockbuster, but this will probably be an early prelim so whatever” – ZeGermanVon
Post-fight: Highlights (39 comments)
  • “That slam was a big mistake” – iWentRogue
  • “that was slick as fuck!” – MoGregio
  • “Covington is a good 2 inches shorter after that!” – Keith11
  • “He didn't want to get choked out so he tried to go out on his own terms. Respect.” – MonoChinEnthusiast
 
2016 June 18: UFC Fight Night 89 – SUB win vs. Jonathan Meunier
Pre-fight: Announcement (23 comments)
  • “I was at Meunier's last fight and this guy is a brilliant prospect and he could could upset Covington but i'm scared this short notice fight is a bad idea... War Meunier !” – acote26
Post-fight: Highlights (14 comments)
  • “Did Colby just say that he would have beat anyone (including GSP) tonight, followed by saying he'll show Damian Maia what a "real grappler is?"
    lolk” – PhatFatty
  • “Win a fight on FightPass in Canada and say you could have beat GSP.
    It's a retarded move, Cotton, let's see if it pays off.
    Then he calls out Maia to show him who the real grappler is. lol” – kneeco28
  • “">had been going to that spinning stuff"
    I see someone browses this sub...” – [deleted]
 
2016 August 20: UFC 202– TKO win vs. Max Griffin
Pre-fight: Announcement (21 comments)
  • “If I'm being completely honest I would love to see Colby get violently knocked out for his comments about Ireland. Prick.” – TheMountain18565
  • “"Wah, Colby said mean words. Somebody, protect me from mean words"
    "Siver is a Nazi"
    It's not the same thing bro.” – [deleted]
  • “I know everyone here hates Colby, but I wrestled with him in college and honestly he's a very nice dude who just loves talking shit and occasionally takes it too far and says some dumb shit at times.” – Techfalled15
  • “Max is dope and he'll knock Covington out.” – tdawg2121
Post-fight: Highlights (13 comments)
  • “He's gonna be feeling that one for a few days. Very clean elbow” – JustAHooker
  • “Even when he wins in impressive fashion, I just don't care. Covington is a massive dick.
    I'd rather fall asleep to watch Jake Shields again.” – VinceOnAPlane
  • “Perhaps it's irrational, but man something about Colby just pisses me the fuck off.
    Hope he stays on the fight pass prelims.” – LordLimpDicks
 
2016 December 17: UFC on Fox 22 – UD win vs. Bryan Barberena
Pre-fight: Announcement (30 comments)
  • “Please god let Barberena work his magic on this clown.” – shrewdy
  • “Damn, if Barberena wins this one his new nickname should be "The Prospect Slayer."” – ZenMaster1212
  • “this is a great scrap! two tough dudes
    if covington wins he'll remind everyone how much of a douche he is” – televa
  • “Mike Perry not a big enough name for Colby, but Brian Barberena is?
    Gotta be joking.” – N0_M1ND
Post-fight: Fight Thread, Colby’s camp costs, [](), [](), []()
  • “Moron spent money on bull shit ozone injection.
    No sympathy from me.” – [deleted]
  • “wrestlefucking by nature isn’t awful, but people who just wrestlefuck with almost no ground striking are probably my least favorite fights to watch” – SavePoonerman
  • “I will always hate Colby Covington. Such a tool and obnoxious fighter. Luckily he’ll never make it past a top 10’er” – codywestphal534
  • “Like 12 takedowns and I don’t think there was a single GNP strike prior to the last 30 seconds, a single submission attempt or a single attempt to advance position” – xtzxyz94
  • “Not a massive Covington fan, but I won’t shit on him. He imposed his style effectively and won the fight. If you want only standup, watch Glory.” – Saul_T_Brawls
  • “Colby is basically a shit GSP. His fights are my bathroom break opportunities.” – epicfishboy
  • “I’d love to see Maia backpack Colby.” – brushbender
 
2017 March: Campaign for RDA fight Twitter fingers
  • “Lol, that was hilariously out of character for RDA.” – oroborus97
  • “What a roast.
    Well done RDA” – **apresmoiledeIuge **
  • “jesus that was savage” – 420asdf999
  • “>2 fight losing streak at a lower weight class
    So? RDA wasn't exactly fighting cans in Alvarez and Ferguson. Is this really the best Covington can do?” – dmarty77
Leaked emails
  • “the Jon Jones one got me” – pleasebequiet
  • “o__o
    I'm actually impressed by the effort that went into this” – watties12
  • “Surprised no one mentioned the open tabs. How to fake a broken foot, who is Colby Colvington, how to defend against a wrestler... This was pretty thorough, I hope it pays off for him.” – TheTrenk
  • “Trollby Covington” – jamesw_24
Rumour of fight
  • “Lol I'm fine with it. Colby won me over with that hilarious email thing.” – Realniceandtight
  • “I see he used the Artem strategy of memeing your way to big fights” – Not_A_Slave
  • “Nice, rooting for RDA on this one.” – BoxCon1
  • “I hope RDA fucks him up and man I hope it isn't a wrestlefucking/blanket party” – Sandman2618
 
2017 June 17: UFC Fight Night 111 – UD win vs. Dong Hyun Kim
Pre-fight: Colby on Lawler, Kim on Covington, Face off,
  • “Please whoop that ass Dong Hyun Kim” – DrPhandrew
  • “Masvidal had nothing but good things to say about Robbie, even said he would never fight him unless for the title.
    This seems super contrived by Covington.” – NatesGrossTeeth
  • “”it's a sign of real immaturity to keep score against your team mates in training. the point is to try new things and get your errors out in gym trials. this attitude stunts training and shows insecurity. That being said Covington is a creature and no fighter is a 'sure thing' against that kind of pressure. – IAmBeachCities
  • “Still love the fact that Colby Covington called out RDA, RDA ducked him, so the UFC gave Covington a bigger fight than RDA got” – davereynolds
  • “Please do it oh great Dong, do it for Robbie!” – hiphopharry420
  • “WAR DONG” – [deleted]
  • “Hope Colby gets the Dong. Not a fan.” – insaneinthebearbrain
  • “Dhk is two to one underdog this fight. Is anyone else shocked at this? Colby is good but I'm putting major money on Kim” – [deleted]
  • “Dong has only lost to Tyron, Carlos and Maia.
    Covington lost to Warley Alves.
    Anyone picking Colby is crazy.” – ororborus97
  • “Coby sure is annoying for a nobody. I hope Stun Gun starches that fool.” – SenorDevil
Post-fight: Highlights (200 comments), Colb’s message for everyone
  • “Man, Covington is just so unlikeable” – [deleted]
  • “Covington acting like a heel, no one wants to seem him lose though, they just don't want to see him at all.” – RcK94
  • “Colby will win the stylistic match ups but he ain't gonna win fans with that cheese of a personality and wrestlefuck strategy. That post-interview was super cringy.
    Great show of wrestling though, but flaccid display from Dong.” – whurlwinds
  • “Lol this dude really pissed you guys off huh” – whenwasthis
  • “Great performance. Totally dominate. Giant douche.” – blonders1
  • “He's kind of like a less charismatic Chael Sonnen.” – UselessWallace
  • “I'm on the Covington hype train now man. When he fights, I know I can take a piss break and grab a snack AND come back to watch him win.” – [deleted]
  • “him vs Usman should fight” – whothefuckisthatguy1
 
Colby Colby throwing shit at the wall and hoping it sticks
  • “Please RDA shut this fool up...” – Armor_Kinq
  • “No Colby, just because a former champion doesn't want to fight you does NOT mean he's a scared bitch. It means there is literally nothing to gain from fighting you.” – Hodgi22
  • “KAY-OSS” – MarbledNightmare
  • “Then go to prison so we don't have to watch you lay and pray for 3 rounds anymore.” – owlfarm542
  • “Mma trash talk can be so cringe worthy” – Ortiz34
  • “Fuck is this MMA or is this The Bachellor?” – ilikerhynos
  • “This is so fucking dumb.” – cooljayhu
  • “This is a whole another level of sucking up to your boss, also another reason why a fighters union would never work out when you have retards like Colby.” – puckingleafs
  • “"I've basically just exposed myself as a suck up and snitch in one sentence"
    Well done Colby....” – Goregoat69
  • “Don't steal my ideas Coby” – ShaneCarwin
 
2017 October 28: UFC Fight Night 119 – UD win vs. Demian Maia
Pre-fight: Announcement, shit talk, more shit talk, being nice to Maia
  • “I hope Maia submits captain cringe” – Erdnusscreme
  • “Out of everyone in the UFC Colby is the one I want to lose the most, guy is an absolute cunt.” – TheGruncher
  • “Just sleep Colby” – Steedy999
  • “Hope he gets the Rick Story treatment.” – Shitposting_Samurai
  • “Pretty strong chance Colby keeps this standing and takes it.
    I know people don't like him, and I don't like him either, but y'all are way too eager to write him off. Dude is one of the guys you can call "the future of the division."” – ExpOriental
  • “This is as big of a Heel VS. Face matchup for hardcore fans I can think of in the UFC right now.” – leftrightcastdotcom
  • “Please Maia, choke this clown.” – causedmanatee
  • “Hope Maia knocks him out” – Vagitarion
  • “That's nice and all but come on, you can't go full heel and then go back and say shit like this. Be consistent.” – abonet619
  • “It's gonna bum me out more than it should if he beats Maia tonight.” – ShurJam44
  • “Good to see such hespekt” – _Lunar
  • “The problem is when that "dad bod" becomes the heaviest and tightest backpack you ever wore in your life.” – FuryanEU
  • “Victim Card Tyron made me chuckle” – thecheddarman
Post-fight: Highlights (470 comments, Apology, Breaking kayfabe
  • “Covington reminds me of a poorly written highschool bully in a 90's movie” – TRT_Jesus
  • “lol Covington is trending on US twitter with people calling for his death or suspension.” – thenameisMalik
  • “Colby's getting stabbed tonight.” – rjtsaigal
  • “I turned him into a mexican tonight! - Colby Covington” – ragewalk
  • “Calling Brazil a dump in Brazil is not a smart idea.” – Thejudokid
  • “Well good job on his win I guess but I'm pretty sure Woodley will knock him into another dimension. He seems to be easily hit and he's definitely not going to win in the cardio department vs Woodley. And I don't see him controlling him on the ground either.” – Kratomlol
  • “"I'd like to apologize..to absolutely NOBODY"” – KhabibTime
  • “Yesterday: Fuck you Colby.
    Today: Colby is such a troll haha lol lmao rofl (insert crying laughter emoji)” – GoreAddict123
  • “Honestly, I find this guy hilarious” – missedboat07
  • “This is fucked up but let’s be real, when Conor said, “I would’ve invaded his Favela on horse back and killed every one who was unfit to work”is just as fucked up. And they used that heavy towards the promotion.” – Tekmon5ter
  • “I thought the post fight interview was funny.” – Jmk21
  • “What's with these assholes breaking kayfabe? Keep your fucking mouth shut.” – rahtin
  • “Colby should just come out as gay” – [deleted]
 
2017 November 17: Sydney – TKO loss (Boomerang) vs. Fabricio Werdum
Pre-fight: Discussion thread, Werdum statement, [https://www.reddit.com/MMA/comments/7dhlng/colby_covington_being_sent_home_from_sydney/](Being sent home)
  • “I wonder what his bff Jorge Masvidal thinks about this.” – xyzxyz94
  • “Chat shit get boomeranged” – whenthisflowerblooms
  • “It's fucking hilarious that Covington called Werdum a "savage" and Werdum responds by throwing a boomerang, the oldest ranged weapon known to mankind.” – Apocalympdick
  • “That's what you get when you bring a cell phone to a boomarang fight” – MarbledNightmare
  • “Ok no matter what Colby starting to walk backwards, while still shittalking, as soon as Werdum takes a step towards him is funny” – halalchampion
  • “Damn kicked off the field trip” – loganflynn808
  • https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DOzPZhlXkAAusAp.jpg ” – godard_4ever
 
2018 June 9: UFC 225 – UD win vs. Rafael dos Anjos
Pre-fight: Rumor, UFC 224 announcement, Move to UFC 225, Weigh-in
  • “I like RDA, I want him to win, and I also want Colby to lose. One stone two birds.” – [deleted]
  • “Inb4 he wrestlefucks Rda and calls him a filthy animal afterwards, because of course he would” – Nemesysbr
  • “Hopefully Dos Anjos sends him into shadow realm” – [deleted]
  • “Damn Colby talked(cringe at that) his way into a title shot?” – Jonmva703
  • “finally gonna see colby getting buttfucked” – smgun
  • “What the fuck?” – GTCanada
  • “A little odd given Woodley says he will be back in July” – MMA_JimEdwards
  • “Lol fuck sake he's going to need 3x the security walking out. like they're gonna have to do one of those roman shield formations so he doesn't get bottled” – BepisSipper
  • “im just picturing that one episode of south park” – ablock3002
  • “Noooo I wanted to watch Colby get bodied in Brazil!” – AsianRainbow
  • “Well I guess Colby’s antics worked cuz I’m hyped af for this fight” – jpr1217
  • “Colby looks like the kind of dude who did a lil gay porn but it’s cool he’s not gay because he was just getting his dick sucked.” – rich-ninja
Post-fight: Highlights (1039 comments)
  • “He still called him a filthy animal after all that.” – cag147
  • “For some reason I got the impression Colby wanted to touch gloves or be a good sport for a split second after each round, but then he would go back into character before it happened.” – CathexisArcana
  • “Colby is like an evil Captain America” – b1p0l4r8e4r
  • “Friendship ended with RDA
Now Tyron is my best friend” – als26
  • “Bad gameplan by RDA. Lingering by the fence, throwing a couple of punches and bracing for the takedown. Really impressed with Covingtons pace and success on the feet with an elite striker in RDA.” – Homeless_Pete
  • “I need Colby vs. Till if Tyron isn't ready.
    I need that Revolutionary War shit talk.” – im_not_your_bro_bro
  • “I hate that Colby can back it up” – EAServersSuck
  • “Fuckin smothington vs woodley fuck it sign me up for ufc 231 "race wars"” – gerago
  • /mma on suicide watch” – xXxHussarxXx
submitted by AsianBeast1996 to MMA [link] [comments]


2018.02.14 19:38 godzilla5549 [Player Made] Royal Navy Destroyer Line - Tiers VII and VIII

First Post
Previous Post

Preface - Errata

In the previous post regarding Tiers V/VI, I had messed up some of the torpedo speeds. The Mark IV is already in the game, and is 57 knots (not 66), and the Mark IV* would actually end up being around 50-52 knots, not 60. I have also gone through and adjusted the torpedo reload times for Tiers VII+.
If any of this is confusing or you can't keep track of it, I will have the tech tree sheet published with the Tier IX/X post.
Introduction
Moving on from the middle tiers, we now go to what starts the higher tiers. Tiers VII and VIII stick out to me fairly well with the ships I have chosen, and they are ones that I would very much like to see how they work out.

Tier VII: Javelin - "J"-class destroyers (1939)

The J, K, and N types are extremely similar, not only to each other but also to the Tribal. The J actually started out as a sort of "improved Tribal" as the Admiralty attempted to rectify one of the major issues noted with the Tribals: a weak torpedo armament. While the Tribal-class were all armed with a single quad launcher, the J/K/N were all packing quite a bit more punch.
  • Ship Dimensions: 108.7 x 10.9 meters
  • Speed: 36 knots @ 40,000 shp (2 shaft)
  • Displacement: ~2,555t full load
This is only a marginal increase in displacement over the Whirlwind, but it does end up being 800 HP more than the N-class destroyer already in the game (Gadjah Mada, ex-HMS Nonpareil). This is a total of 15,100 HP. Speed stays the same as the previous tier.
  • Main Armament: 3x2 4.7"/45 (12 cm) QF Mark IX (CP Mark XIX) in A-Bs-X
While the size of the ship doesn't go up much, the firepower surely does. Not only do you get 2 more guns, you also get them in 3x twin turrets, with focused forward firepower. Reload drops 1 second to 10 rds/min, but DPM does still go up by about 20k for both AP and HE. The Mark XIX mounting is still not HA, though. From here on out, I do not have any destroyer that reverts back to a majority of single turrets.
  • Torpedo Armament: 2x5 21 inch (53.3 cm) Pentad
  • Torpedo: 21 inch (53.3 cm) Mark X*
  • [email protected]: 8.0 km @ 57 knots
  • Damage: 14,400
  • Warhead/Propulsion/Detection Range: 300 kg TNT / Wet-heater / 1.2 km
Quite a jump in torpedo power, considering that you (very likely) have the ability of single-fire torpedoes. However, you will notice that this is not the Mark IX torpedo, but the Mark X*. Even better if you notice where the Mark X is found: Błyskawica. The Mark X (and all variants) were made specifically for use in foreign ships equipped by the Royal Navy (Polish, Brazilian, Dutch, and Greek ships). I have chosen the Mark X* for use in the Javelin for primarily 2 reasons. First, to avoid the absurd reload time found on Gadjah Mada, and second, to specifically avoid the Mark IX so as to not make the Javelin too powerful.
Both the Mark IX* and the Mark X* have a range of 8.0 km, but the former is 61 knots compared to 57 knots. The damage of the Mark X* is also just over 1,000 less. To solve the issue I have with the reload time, I have used the same reload speed as Fletcher, 106 seconds for a quintuple launcher. This would allow Javelin to have torpedoes up more often (as opposed to 120 seconds for Gadjah Mada) but not be spitting out high powered torpedoes all the time. I am also taking the single-fire capability into consideration with this.
  • AA Defenses: 1x4 40 mm/39 (2-pdr) QF Mark VIII (Mark VII) + 2x2 20 mm/70 + 2x1 20 mm/70 Oerlikon Mark V/III
Not really much here. Tier VII is still not a tier where you get destroyers with decent AA anyway. That will change with the following tiers.

Tier VIII: Meteor - "M"-class destroyers (1942)

The L and M groups were seen as a further improvement of the J-class. Initial ideas were rather ambitious, but the Admiralty settled for more incremental improvements. But where changes were made do have an effect for the game.
  • Ship Dimensions: 110.5 x 11.2 meters
  • Speed: 36 knots @ 48,000 shp (2 shaft)
  • Displacement: ~2,840t full load
Only a tiny bit bigger than previous, but nearly 300t heavier, which is why the increase in engine power is needed to maintain 36 knots. This now gives you 16,200 HP which matches Kiev (Ognevoi being 100 less), more towards the top end of destroyer HP at Tier VIII. Z-23 and Akizuki are far out ahead, with 19,500 and 20,400 respectively.
  • Main Armament: 3x2 4.7"/50 (12 cm) QF Mark XI (CP Mark XX) in A-Bs-X
This is a different gun than previously seen, being L/50, and for the first time a "high angle gun."1 Gun handling is better (10 deg/second traverse) and reload goes back to 12 rds/min. Now, the QF Mark XI historically was around 6-10 rds/min, with the training angles usually making it rather long to reload, but I have artificially boosted it to 5 second reload to keep up with small improvements. It is possible that this is not needed, but I have included it either way. Another note is that the muzzle velocity does drop, due to an increase in shell weight. 774 m/s MV compared to 808 m/s for the 4.7"/45, but I am not sure how big on an impact this would have. The new projectiles were 5/10 crh so it could be they fly slightly better than the previous ones (combined with the heavier weight).
  • Torpedo Armament: 2x4 21 inch (53.3 cm) Quad
  • Torpedo: 21 inch (53.3 cm) Mark IX*
  • [email protected]: 10.5 km @ 61 knots
  • Damage: 15,866
  • Warhead/Propulsion/Detection Range: 340 kg TNT / Burner-cycle / 1.3 km
Now we see the Mark IX* appear, and the Mark IX could likely be the stock torpedo. You do revert back to quads, but the reload also goes down as well (I have 96 seconds, taken from Neptune).
  • AA Defenses: 3x2 4.7"/50 QF Mark IX + 1x4 40 mm/39 Mark VII + 4x2 20 mm/70 + 2x1 20 mm/70
For the DPS values of the 4.7"/50, I took into account the parameters of the weapon in service. It was not very effective against aircraft due to the training speed and a maximum elevation of only +50 degrees. WG tends to have DP mounts be rather trash unless they have full power control and radar guidance, so I'm not entirely sure what value to give the 4.7"/50. I have decided to assume around 7-10 DPS per twin mount, which would result in a total of around 22-30 DPS for the long-range aura. To account for the very limited elevation, the maximum range could be limited to 4.5 or even 4.0 km.2
However it turns out, the AA will get much better for the final two tiers.
I may or may be someone who likes A E S T H E T I C S and chose the names of these ships because I like the way they sound. Meteor is one that I would personally like, as it seems very interesting based on the stats I have.
Additionally, I will also be doing an extra post on some of the premiums I have in mind. We would all riot if there was no Tribal released. Haida pls
I also went ahead and already wrote out the entire post for the Tier IX and X, so I should have that up this weekend.3
Notes:
1. For more reading, see here: http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNBR_47-50_mk11.php
2. See note 1, but specifically: "although its low maximum elevation and slow training and elevation speeds made it only marginally useful for anti-aircraft defense."
3. Provided I don't end up dying waiting for the next episode of Darling in the FranXX
submitted by godzilla5549 to WorldOfWarships [link] [comments]


2017.12.25 08:08 FreeCandyVanDriver "The History of Naming Conventions": 3rd Annual Christmas Edition

The "History of Naming Conventions" is back for the third time on Christmas morning yet again to give you everything you ever wanted to know about the names of clubs from all over the world. And this time, it's very slightly bigger, a touch more detailed, and I didn't fuck up all the Portuguese and some Central European clubs.
Some of you might remember that I have posted versions of this twice before, but seeing as I still get PM's almost daily after originally posting up my first History of Naming Conventions at Christmas of 2015, I figured it was high time to redo the post and try to clean it up a fair bit. The follow-up post, the "Redux" edition, cleaned it up a bit more, and sorted the info alphabetically.
Happy Holidays (yes, even to RB fans) and I hope you enjoy the History of Naming Conventions, and an all-new (copy & pasted from something else I wrote and posted here before) in-depth explanation of the history of the World's Oldest Football Club, Sheffield FC. I've copy & pasted that into a comment in this post.

History Of Naming Conventions

While many fans understand that clubs have differing naming conventions, such as Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday, and Sheffield F.C., many fans have absolutely no idea what those specific conventions imply. I'm here to set the record straight on why your club is named why it is. But let's start with the basics first, like the first football team, Sheffield F.C., and work our way up.

The Basics: “F.C.”

“F.C.” Stands for “Football Club.” From the outset, Sheffield F.C. used the term “F.C.” to differentiate it from the other sports club in Sheffield at the time – the rugby club named that was simply named “Sheffield.”
Since football was a brand new thing, the club adopted the “F.C.” to simply allow the locals to know that it wasn't the rugby team – it was the other Sheffield club playing that new sport where someone can't use their hands.
And since rugby clubs had sprouted up all over England long before the game we know as "modern" football became popular, almost every new football club took the naming convention of “F.C.”
At this point, you might be asking yourself, “Why 'club' though?” At that time, all sporting groups were “clubs,” as it was seen as more of a hobby than a profession or a business.
So you might be thinking “Okay, but what about A.F.C.?” Simple: the founding of football did not coincide with a codified set of rules. At the time, several set of rules were around, including “Sheffield Rules” and the familiar “Association Football Rules”. In cities that had a club that played under Sheffield Rules were names “F.C.” and another club that played under Association Football Rules, that club would take the “A.F.C.” convention. “A.F.C.” disappeared for the most part as most teams played under the Association Football Rules by the end of the 19th century, although some teams have kept their old name still to this day.
That's how the whole “F.C.” started.
But what about all of the others? Where did they come from? Why is there teams that use the term “Old Boys”? The following list will go through damn near each and every variation.
Before we do that, however, it pays to remember that the “rules” behind each naming convention are not always 100% for each and every club. Some clubs have just chosen to use the naming convention for the sound of it. Others have used it because it helped with marketing. And who knows why they chose 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig for a name – well, I know why, and you are about to.
We're breaking this down into two separate parts, Initials and Words, that way you can look up information substantially easier.

The List of Naming Conventions:

The Important Ones:

These two form the basis of most club structures - and will be referenced throughout the massive list below. Understanding these two in advance will make your life easier when reading through the list.
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
F.C. Football Club Worldwide F.C. is used by many teams throughout the world and is simply to brand the team as a football club. Historically used to differentiate between football and rugby clubs playing in the same town, the naming convention became the most commonly used in football, with many variations based on local language spelling the words "Football Club" Sheffield F.C. (England)
S.C. (1) Sports Club (various spellings) Worldwide S.C. is used by teams throughout the world where the founding of the team originated from an organized group of individuals in order to provide structure to activities. Oftentimes it's a youth organization. The use of S.C. implies that the organization running the clubs have clubs in more than one sport. S.C. is important to note as many teams throughout the world will have initials that translate into this specific definition in English. Simba S.C. (Tanzania)

The Initials:

(This is set up in alphabetical order, minus the first two entries, which are deemed important enough that you need to know them before others as they are referenced frequently throughout the list.)
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
AA Atletiek Associatie Low Countries Dutch for "Athletic Association" with the implied meaning behind the typical usage of "Sports Club." Traditionally, they offer teams and training in several sports beyond football AA Gent, now known as KAA Gent (Belgium)
A.C. Associazione Calcio Italy Used in Italian-speaking regions, “Associazione Calcio" translates into English as “Football Association” and is the Italian equivalent of “A.F.C.” A.C. Milan (Italy)
A.D. (1) Asociación Deportiva or Agrupación Deportiva Spain, Latin America The Spanish-language version of “SA”, this translates roughly into Sports Association. It's often found in Spanish speaking nations throughout the world, but particularly in Spain itself A.D. Isidro Metapán (El Salvador)
A.D. (2) Associação Desportiva Portugal The Portuguese-language version of “SA”, this translates loosely into Sports Association and is used in the same context AD Nogueirense (Portugal)
A.S. Association Sportive (various spellings) France, Italy, Africa Used primarily in French and Italian speaking nations, it translates as “Sports Association.” Many clubs use this in former French colonies, as well as Italy and France A.S. Douanes (Niger)
A.S.A. (1) Asociația Sportivă Armatei (various spellings) Eastern Europe This roughly translates into “Army Sports Association”, which implies that the club is run by the army, but is not always the case as clubs with A.S.A can be independently run. ASA București, now CSA Steaua București (Romania)
A.S.A. (2) Asociația Sportivă Ardealul Romania This translates into "Transylvania Sports Association", and found exclusively in Romania ASA 2013 Târgu Mureș (Romania)
A.S.D. Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Italy Roughly translates to "Amateur Sports Association”, and found exclusively in Italian-speaking communities. Usage denotes pure amateur clubs (either current or historical) and are often clubs run by the local municipalities. They offer programs from under-4 through Adult leagues. Not many are found near the top of the pyramid, but they form the basis of youth football clubs in Italy A.S.D. Sanremese (Italy)
B (1) Boldklub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". As the single letter "B", it is found almost exclusively in Denmark, but has been used throughout Scandinavia. Vejle Boldklub, known as VB (Denmark)
B (2) "B" Squad Worldwide In this instance the letter "B" indicates that this club is the secondary team to the primary Adult team fielded by the organization, and often indicates the "reserve" squad for professional teams Real Betis B (Spain)
B.K. Ballklubb (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". Found throughout Scandinavian nations and is fairly common. Rosenborg BK (Norway)
BSG Betriebssportgemeinschaft German speaking nations Translates as "Sports Associations" with the same connotations as "Sports Assications", these clubs also were almost always within the government control of the GDEast German government during the Cold War. Used to denote the Sports Branch of particular trade associations, such as Dynamo, Lokomotive, and Stahl BSG Wismut Aue, now FC Erzgebirge Aue (Germany)
BSV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BSV Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, known as Borussia Dortmund (Germany)
BV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BV Cloppenburg Frauen (Germany)
C Combinatie Netherlands Translates into "Combined", meaning that the club was founded as a merger between two existing clubs RKC Waalwijk (Netherlands)
C.A. Club Atlético or Clube Atlético Spain, Portugal, Latin America Translates into “Athletic Club”, these clubs are usually privately owned teams that have an outreach program within the community. Several teams with C.A. do not, however, and have the name as a basis to show that it is sponsored by a private, members-only club. C.A. Progreso (Uruguay)
C.D. Club Deportivo or Clube Desportivo Spain, Portugal, Latin America This translates into “Sports Club” in English, and is used in the same manner. Club Deportivo Pacífico FC (Peru)
C.F. Club Football (various spellings) Worldwide Found primarily in Spanish and Portuguese speaking nations, C.F. holds the same meaning as "Football Club." It is used in nations where the local language switches the order of words C.F. Monterrey (Mexico)
C.F.C. Cricket Football Club or Cricket & Football Club Worldwide Fairly rare, C.F.C is used either for teams comprised of cricket players or for a football club founded by a dedicated Cricket Club. These clubs are founded almost exclusively by British expats in major cities throughout the world. Genoa C.F.C. (Italy)
C.S. Club Sport Latin America Used with the same meaning as Sport Club
CSCA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Eastern Europe CSCA is a spelling variation of CSKA, see CSKA for details CSCA-Rapid Chisinau (Moldova) - Rebranded as FC Steaua București
CSA Clubul Sportiv al Armatei Eastern Europe Translated as "Army Sports Club", this implies that the team is affiliated with the army, as well as fielding teams in multiple sports CSA Steaua București (Romania)
CSKA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Nations CSKA is a hold-over from the Soviet-Bloc era. There are several various spellings of the initials that mean "Central Army Sports Club", such as CSCA and CWKS. Traditionally, these teams were comprised of members of the Army, but several teams were known to pay players to “join the army” and gave out higher incomes than to the common athlete/soldiers. PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
CWKS Central Army Sports Club Poland In Poland, these teams were either comprised of Army players or were freestanding clubs that were merged with Army clubs but still run independently of the army structure. A variation of CSKA. CWKS Resovia Rzeszow (Poland)
DJK Deutsche Jugendkraft Germany Translated into "German Youth Power", these clubs typically have a traditional youth development component. These culbs are often founded to give their youth outreach players a place to play after they have come of age DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf (Germany)
E.C. Esporte Clube Brazil This means "Sports Club" in Portuguese and are found exclusively in Brazil. They serve the same role as a traditional community-based organization like Sport Clubs. Esporte Clube Bahia (Brazil)
e.V. eingetragener Verein German speaking nations Loosely translated into "Registered Association", it indicates that the club is officially registered with the government Fußballclub Rot-Weiß Erfurt e.V. (Germany)
F.B.C. Foot Ball Club South America Rarely used. Found in Peru almost exclusively, and most likely comes from the separating of the two syllables in "foot-ball" into two separate words when using "Football Club" as a part of the clubs name FBC Melgar (Peru)
FF (1) Fotbollförening (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as either "Football Club" or "Sports Club", depending on the club using it Malmö FF (Sweden)
FF (2) Fodsports forening (various spellings) Scandinavia Literally translated as "Foot Sport Association", these clubs are often the same as Sports Clubs, although a few offer only Football as a sport. Viborg Fodsports Forening, known as VFF (Denmark)
F.F.C. Frauenfußballclub German speaking nations Used in locations where the local word for “Women's” starts with the letter “F,” often used by clubs in Germany. 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam (Germany)
F.K. Football Klub (various spellings) Worldwide Meaning "football Club", F.K. is used in nations where the word “Club” is started with the letter “K,” FK Dinamo-Rīnuži (Latvia)
FSV Fussball- und Sportverein Germany Translates to "Football and Sports Clubs," and is to be used in the same manner as "Sports Club." 1. FSV Mainz 05 (Germany)
G.D. Grupo Desportivo Portugal Portuguese for "Sports Group", this is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" G.D. Fabril (Portugal)
GF Gymnastikforening Denmark Found almost exclusively in Denmark, the literal translation is "Gymnastics Association." These football clubs were founded by groups that already had a background in offering gymnastics programs AGF Aarhus (Denmark)
GIF Gymnastik- & Idrottsförening Sweden, Scandinavia Loosely translates into "Athletic & Sports Association" and is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" GIF Sundsvall (Sweden)
GKS Górniczy Klub Sportowy Poland Translates into "Mining Sport Club", where the "G" denotes a mining "KS" (Klub Sportowy), and is used in the same manner GKS Katowice (Poland)
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung German speaking nations While not an exact translation, it's meaning is the same as Limited Liability Company. This indicates that the club is not publicly traded nor it is a community-owned club held in a trust. They are a privately-owned business in which the individual owners are not liable for debts incurred by the club itself Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH (Germany)
IF Idrottsförening Scandinavia Swedish for “Sports Association”, but is often used in the same way that we would imagine a “Sports Club” being used by English speakers. Djurgårdens IF (Sweden)
IFK Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Sweden, Finland Swedish for "Sporting Society Comrades,” clubs within the IFK are a part of an over-arching Scandinavian Youth organization. They trace their roots back more than 110 years and spread throughout Scandinavia. Currently the IFK's are still focused on multiple sports, and still exist in both Sweden and Finland. IFK Göteborg (Sweden)
IK Idræts Klub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translated into "Sports Club," it's use is more like a “S & C/Sports & Culture” club when it is used by teams in Denmark that are made up of players in the foreign diaspora. However, for teams that are not made up of foreign-born players, IK is used in the same fashion as “Sports Club.” Hobro IK (Denmark)
IL Idrettslag Norway Used almost exclusively in Norway, it translates into “Sports Club” with the same meaning implied. Flekkerøy IL (Norway)
IS Idrottsällskap Sweden Loosely translated into "Sports Society", it holds the same meaning as Sports Club. Örgryte IS (Sweden)
J.K./JK (1) Jimnastik Kulübü Turkey Translated into "gymnastics club", it's use indicates that the club itself has either a history of operating a Gymnastics club or is currently running one. In modern usage, these clubs are seen the same way as one sees the usage of "Sports Club" Beşiktaş J.K. (Turkey)
JK (2) Jalkapalloklubi or Jalkapallokerho Finland Loosely translates into "Football Club" and holds the same meaning Jyväskylän Jalkapalloklubi, known as JJK (Finland)
K Koninklijke Belgium Literally translates into "Royal". Any club with 50 years of continued existence can add "Koninklijke" to their name in Belgium. Has no bearing on the type of club. K. Lierse S.K. (Belgium)
KAA Koninklijke Atletiek Associatie Belgium, Low Countires Literally translates to "Royal Athletics Association", and is used in the same fashion as "Sports Club" is. These clubs started off as having "AA", as opposed to "KAA", as teams are allowed to add "Koninklijke" (Royal) to their club name after 50 years of continued existence K.A.A. Gent (Belgium)
K.S. Klub Sportowy Poland This directly translates into “Sports Club”, and has the same connotation and usage Piast Gliwice K.S. (Poland)
M Mestský Czeck and Slovak Republics Literally translated as "City", it denotes the location of the team. Usually precedes other initials, such as MFK MFK Dubnica (Slovakia)
N.K. Nogometni klub Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Loosely translates into and is the equivalent to “Football Club”. common at both the upper-tier clubs and lower leagues NK Svoboda (Slovenia)
P.F.C. Professional Football Club Worldwide a rare usage, usually indicates a team that has had an amateur side in previous years or still maintains clubs in other sports with an amateur status. Also has found usage as former Government-run teams, such as army, taxation, or police clubs PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
PS Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Translated into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as "Football Club" PS Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesia)
PK Pallokerho Finland Translates into "Ball Club", and hold the same connotation as "Football Club" PK-35 Vantaa (Finland)
PV Palloveikot Finland Loosely translates into "Ball Fraternity", it's used in the same way as "Social Club" would be used Tampereen Pallo-Veikot (Finland)
R (1) Royal Worldwide Typically added to a club's name after either 50 years of existence or by royal decree via patronage. had no bearing on the organizational operations of the club R Antwerp F.C. (Belgium)
R (2) Regatta (various spellings) Worldwide While fairly rare, the usage of "R" within this context signifies a historical tie with a rowing or sailing club Botafogo R (Brazil)
RC (3) Racing/Racing Club (various spellings) Worldwide The usage of "Racing" and "Racing Club" does not necessarily imply anything, but several teams that use a variation of it have historical ties to Track & Field groups, while others have ties to horse racing and even racing various types of boats. It carries zero significance to how the club currently operates, however. RC Lens (France)
R (4) Radnički Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Meaning "Worker", these clubs are often founded by the "working class" of a town. Most often used a precursor to another abbreviation RNK Split (Croatia)
RB Rasenballsport Fantasyland This term is totally made up by Red Bull to circumvent branding rules in international competitions, yet they claim it's a legitimate term that translates into "Lawn Ball Sport". To any reasonable person, "RB" stands solely for the most crass modern marketing in football. RB Leipzig (Germany)
R.C.D. Real Club Deportivo Spain Translated into "Royal Sports Club," it implies a Sports Club with a royal charter. Implies the same as the term "Sports Club" RCD Mallorca (Spain)
S.A. Sports Association (various spellings) Worldwide These are found in many nations regardless of local language. S.A. may imply multiple teams being fielded - more than one football team, more than one gender, and even more than one sport. A deceptively vague term, and rarely used in English-speaking nations due to the lack of any defined meaning.
S.A.D. Sociedad Anónima Deportiva Spain, Spanish-speaking nations Loosely translated into "Limited Sports Society," this term that the club is a type of LLC. Operates in a similar fashion to GmbH clubs in German-speaking nations Sevilla Fútbol Club, S.A.D. (Spain)
S.C. (2) Soccer Club Worldwide Carries the same meaning as F.C., and it is used primarily in nations where the sport of football is referred to as soccer Columbus Crew SC (United States)
S.C. (3), S&C (4) Sports & Culture (various combinations) Mediterranean regions "Sports & Culture" is used by various club associations to include a community enrichment program as well as sports for both children and adults. N/A
S.D. Sociedad Deportiva Spain, Latin America Directly translates into "Sports Society," and carries the same implied meaning as "Sport Club" SD Ponferradina (Spain)
SE Sociedade Esportiva Brazil Portuguese for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. SE Palmeiras (Brazil)
SG Sportgemeinschaft German-speaking nations Translates into "Sports Association," and is most often used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SG Wattenscheid 09 (Germany)
S.K. (1) Spor Kulübü Turkey Directly translates into "Sports Club" and carries the same connotation. Galatasaray S.K. (Turkey)
S.K. (2) Sportsklubben (various spellings) Scandinavia, Worldwide Directly translates into "Sports Club," these clubs are not beholden to typical conventions. While they are frequently found in Scandinavia, they can be found throughout the world SK Brann (Norway)
SpVgg Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Translates into "Playing Association," these clubs are like other "Sports Clubs" but usually focus on non-gymnastic sports in addition to football. SpVgg Greuther Fürth (Germany)
S.S. Società Sportiva Italy, Malta Italian for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. Found in Italy to a very small extent, these are fairly common on the island of Malta. S.S. Lazio (Italy)
SSV Schwimmsportverein or Sport- und Schwimmverein Germany Translates to "Swim Sport Club" or "Sports and Swimming Club," and is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SSV Ulm 1846 (Germany)
S.T. Soccer Team Worldwide The usage of Soccer Team is frequently found in English-speaking nations where football is referred to as soccer and often implies a youth development component. This is not always the case, as they are found in non-English speaking nations where the sport is referred to as Football. Bassano Virtus 55 S.T. (Italy)
SSC Società Sportiva Calcio Italy Translates as "Sporting and Football Society" and are considered to be clubs who offer several sports, with football being the focus S.S.C. Napoli (Italy)
S.V. Sportverein (various spellings) Low Countries, Germany Meaning “Sports Club" and used in the same context, S.V. teams are found throughout Western Europe, but mainly within the Low Countries and Germany Hannoversche Sportverein 1896 eV, known as Hannover 96 (Germany)
T.S.V. Turn- und Sportverein German-speaking nations This translates to “Gymnastic and Sporting Club," and is to be considered the same as "Sports Club" TSV 1860 München (Germany)
TuS Turn- und Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Literally translated to "Gymnastic and Gaming Club", used in the same way as "Sports Club" Düsseldorfer TuS Fortuna 1895 e.V. (Germany)
U.C. Unione Calcio Italian-speaking nations Translated directly into "Football Union", these clubs often gain the use of U.C. after a merger with another club. No other significance. U.C. Sampdoria (Italy)
UD Unión Deportiva Spain, Latin America Translates to "Sporting Union" and is used in a similar manner Levante UD (Spain)
U.S. Unione Sportiva Italian-speaking nations Meaning "Sporting Union," these clubs have been renamed after a merger with other groups. They typically offer other sports besides football. U.S. Sassuolo Calcio (Italy)
VfB Verein für Bewegungsspiele German-speaking nations Directly translated into "Club for Exercise games," these clubs are similar to "Sports Clubs" in that they offer other sports in addition to football, but often have a more dedicated push towards to those other sports compared to most "Sports Clubs" VfB Stuttgart (Germany)
VfL Verein für Leibesübungen German-speaking nations Literally translated as "Club for Body exercises," these clubs are often formed by clubs that focus on general overall fitness. There is a tradition of company-founded "VfL" clubs for its workers VfL Wolfsburg (Germany)
VfR Verein für Rasensport German-speaking nations Translates into "Club for Lawnsports," these clubs are more like your traditions "Sports Club" in their offering of other sporting activities VfR Aalen 1921 (Germany)
VV Voetbal Vereniging Low Countries Translates into "Football Association" and carries the same meaning as "Sports Club" VV Steenbergen (Holland)
The Numbers:
Occasionally, you will find numbers within the both the full and proper name of a club as well as the commonly used name for the club. Below is a description on what they mean:
Number Structure Meaning
XXXX - four digits Found throughout the world, this number is almost always the founding year of the club. An example of this is TSV 1860 München.
XX - two digits Found throughout the world, this is the last two numbers in the given century of their founding. Bayer 04 Leverkusen is a popular example of this.
1. - as a precursor Found primarily in Europe, the “1.” in front of the club's name indicates that that club was the first club founded in a city. It's a source of pride for these clubs, and is still used to this day, primarily in Germany. An example of this would be 1. FC Lübars.
The Words:
This section focuses on words that you'll often see in names of several clubs. These words may be to help differentiate between clubs from the same city, they may be tied to their history, their formation, who founded the clubs, or even professional versus amateur status. Like the initials, these rules are not always 100% true, and are to used as guides to help understand the history behind the name for the most teams possible. Yes, there are exceptions to possibly all of these, but the exceptions are much less frequent thean the rule - hence using exceptions.
Word Purpose
Academia (various spellings) Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the world.
Alemannia or Germania An old name for Germany.
Ajax A reference from Greek mythology. Some clubs in Africa and the Americas with the name are affiliated with Ajax of Holland.
Albion A very old name for Great Britain. Used to denote a specific team in a community with more than one club. UK only.
Apollon A reference to the Greek god Apollo. No other significance.
Arsenal Used throughout Europe, these clubs have a traditional association with Weapons manufacturing.
Astra or Asteras Greek for "star," used all over Europe.
Atlas Usually a reference to Greek mythology, occasionally a reference to the mountain range by that name. No other significance.
Athletic Just a general term if used without any other modifier. Found everywhere.
Borussia Latin for Prussia, used by clubs in Germany
Brown A reference to Guillermo Brown/William Brown, an Irish/Argentinian Sea Captain. Argentina only.
Calcio Italian for "football," no special significance if used without another modifier.
Casuals Often used to denote a club's "amateur" status.
Celtic These are clubs that are often founded by members of the Celtic Diaspora and are found throughout the world.
Chernomorets (various spellings) Local language name for the Black Sea, no special significance. Found in Ukraine and Bulgaria.
City Usage of this denotes that the club represents a specific city, and is used to identify a specific club within a city of multiple clubs. Also denotes clubs that are a part of the “City Football Group” - Manchester, Melbourne, and New York City.
Collieries Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily England.
Corinthians References the town of Corinth in Greece, and is often used to allude to the Corinthian ideal of amateurism in sports. Also used to denote an "amateur" club.
Cosmos Short for Cosmopolitan, represents the ideal of multiculturalism. No other significance.
County Denotes a political level of Government, often preceded by the official name of the county. Primarily England.
Days (Specific days of the week) Used to specify specific clubs in communities with more than one club. An example is Sheffield Wednesday (which came from the original Cricket club's name)
Douanes Clubs that are supported by National Customs and Taxation departments. Found in French speaking nations.
Dutch Lions These are clubs owned by the Dutch club F.C. Twente, found only in the U.S.A.
Dynamo (various spellings) Most of these clubs were originally a part of the “Dynamo” Sport society, founded by the Soviets in the early 20th century. Often attached to the Department of Interior Security.
En Avant French for “forward,” no other significance.
Eintracht German for "united," no other significance.
Energy (various spellings) Used throughout the world to denote a connection to the local Electric/Power company
-ense Used after a city's name, used to indicating the club belongs to that city/place. Found in Portuguese speaking nations
Español Simply refers to the country of Spain, although it has been used by members of the Spanish diaspora.
Espoir or Espérance) French for "hope," no other significance. French Speaking nations only.
Estudiantes Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
Excelsior Means “higher”, no other significance
Ferroviário Meaning "rail" in English, it is used to denote a railway-founded club. Found most often in Portuguese-speaking African nations
Fortuna The Greek Goddess of fortune, used throughout the world
Gimnasia (various spellings) Implying Gymnastics. These clubs often have ties with Gymnastics clubs or groups.
Górnik Sometimes abbreviated as GKS, these are clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Poland.
Hapoel An Israeli sporting association that can links to various trades unions. Often left-leaning historically. Israel only.
Hercules or Heracles A reference to the Greek God of strength, courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess. Worldwide.
Hibernian These are clubs that are traditionally founded by members of the Irish Diaspora and are found throughout Scotland, Malta and in Ireland itself.
Hilal Arabic for "Crescent", usually tied to the new crescent moon at the beginning of each month in the Islamic calendar. Found throughout the Arabic speaking world.
Inter or International Denotes clubs that are founded by either immigrants to their location or are using the term to identify themselves differently from other clubs, sometimes by way of splinter groups forming their own club.
Ittihad Arabic for “union,” with the implied meaning of “United” in English.
Juve (also: Juventus, Jeunesse, Juniors, Youth) A reference to youth, no other significance.
Lokomotiv (various spellings) Clubs founded by Railways or railway workers, these clubs can be found throughout the world. Most are professional, but some still have actual railroad workers on their rosters.
Maccabi A reference to the Maccabees, Maccabi is a "Sporting Society" in Israel. Found in several nations with large, Jewish populations. Often affiliated with youth outreach sports.
Metallurg Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Usually Russian-speaking nations with this spelling.
Metalurh Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Ukrainian clubs with this spelling.
Mineros Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Spanish-speaking South American nations.
Mohammedan Denotes clubs founded in the principles of the Muslim faith, usually as youth outreach groups. Found everywhere.
Nacional (various spellings) Means “national”, but usually denotes nothing. Occasionally used for teams of the army, but more often used to identify specific teams in larger markets. Used everywhere.
Old Boys Clubs that were founded to provide football at an age past school age for a particular school.
Olympic (various spellings) References the Olympic Games, but bears no other significance.
Perse- or Persi- A prefix meaning "Football Association" attached to clubs, often found in Indonesia
Petrolero Clubs that have were founded by either workers in the Petrol/Oil industry or by the companies themselves. Found throughout the petrol/oil producing world.
Police (various spellings) Clubs that have an affiliation with governmental policing groups. Often consist of active members of the police force, but some do have professional footballs within their ranks.
Politehnica Clubs with ties to a specific university. Found primarily in Eastern Europe.
Preußen German for "Prussia," no other significance.
Racing References a historical relationship with racing - either Track & Field events, rowing, sailing, or even horse racing. Oftentimes, these clubs used the middle of the racing oval as their original home ground.
Rangers The name occasionally implies a tie-in towards the military or policing, however this is a rare occurrence, as the name traditionally means nothing of significance for the club.
Real Spanish for “Royal”, these clubs have the direct patronage of the Spanish Monarchy. Found in Spanish speaking nations. Excludes Real Salt Lake of the MLS.
Red Bull Found throughout the world, these are clubs that are not only sponsored by the Red Bull Energy Drink company, they are often founded by them. Most people detest the names, even their own fans.
Regatas (various spelling) Often used to denote clubs that have an association with either rowing or sailing, these are mainly found in Brazil.
Rio Branco A reference to José Paranhos, His Excellency The Baron of Rio Branco. The Godfather of Brazilian diplomacy. Found only in Brazil.
Rovers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found primarily in the British Isles.
Royal A word that Belgian clubs can use after 50 years of continuous existence. Can use the German, French, Dutch or English version of the the word.
Ruch Meaning “movement” in Polish. No other significance.
Santos or San It's the Spanish/Portuguese word for “Saint” and/or “Saints”, but it doesn't mean imply anything specific.
Shamrock A national symbol of Ireland, used in both Ireland and the U.S.A. No other significance.
Slavia Just refers to the Slavic people, Found in Eastern Europe and supported by men in matching tracksuits squatting on the sidelines.
Sparta Referencing the Greek town of Sparta, but has no special significance.
Spartak A reference to Spartacus, the slave-turned-leader of a revolt almost two thousand years ago. Found throughout Eastern Europe and Russia.
-spor (ending of a name) Means “sport,” and is found in Turkey.
Sporting This implies that the club is a part of a larger group of teams in various sports. If a club uses the name “Sporting”, it is the name of the overarching group for all the teams in all of the sports that it participates in.
Stål Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Scandinavian with this spelling.
Stade The French word for “stadium.” These clubs are often named after their original home ground.
Stahl Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily German with this spelling.
Stal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Eastern European with this spelling.
Swifts The plural for Swift, a type of bird. No other significance.
Thistle A national symbol of Scotland. No other significance.
Torpedo A reference to the Soviet Volunteer Sports Society, indicates a historical tie to Russia.
United (various spelling) Outside of England, this is indicative of clubs that were founded by the merger of two or more clubs. Sometimes this is used to denote a different club if more than one exist within the same community. Found everywhere.
Universidad (various spellings) Clubs that have ties, usually founding ties, to a University. These are found throughout the world.
Wanderers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found throughout the world, but primarily English-speaking nations.
Welfare A reference to the “Well-being” movement of the early 1900's. These clubs are usually small and community-based. Mainly in England.
Wolves Just implies the animal, no other significance.
Young Boys Clubs with ties to a local school, often used to differentiate between multiple clubs.
Zagłębie Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Only in Poland.
Zenit A reference indicating that the club was once a part of the Zenit Soviet Sports Society or an alliance with the Zenit itself.
Happy Holidays, you glorious bastards.
-FCVD
submitted by FreeCandyVanDriver to soccer [link] [comments]


2017.07.20 21:06 Loosel F1 2016 LANGUAGE PACKS

Couldn't find the single language packs anywhere else, so here they are.
Language code Language Features Download
de-DE German/Deutsch Audio+Voice command [download]
en-GB-US-CA-AU English Audio+Voice command [download]
es-ES Spanish/Español Audio+Voice command [download]
fr-FR French/Français Audio+Voice command [download]
it-IT Italian/Italiano Audio+Voice command [download]
ja-JP Japanese/日本語 Audio+Voice command [download]
pt-BR Brazilian Portuguese/Português brasileiro Audio+Voice command [download]
pl-PL Polish/Polski Text only [download]
ru-RU Russian/Русский Text only [download]
zh-CHT Traditional Chinese/漢語 Text only [download]
zh-CHS Simplified Chinese/汉语 Text only [download]

Installation

  1. Unpack inside the F1 2016 folder.
  2. Edit the game language in your stp-steam.ini file.
  3. Run the game. Press Y to enter game options, go to "Settings" -> "Audio Settings" -> "Advanced Audio Settings" and change the team radio engineer language from there.
  4. (Optional) To enable voice commands install x64_SpeechPlatformRuntime.msi and MSKinectLangPack_xxXX.msi from the "installers" folder.
  5. Enjoy.
Source: FitGirl repack.
submitted by Loosel to CrackSupport [link] [comments]


2017.04.20 17:21 Joe_Munday Gief's Gym: Character Supplements - Laura

https://www.reddit.com/stReetfightewiki/v/giefsgym

Welcome back friends! Brazilian Jujitsu is no match for Russian Wrestling!
I cannot stress enough, how important it is to read through each lesson. Simply performing the workouts is not enough to learn fighting games. Personally I never considered the original tutorials as a means to learn how to play Ryu but as a way to learn how to play Street Fighter.

Laura

All about the neutral...

Anti Airs

Anti-Airs: Part 1

Standing Medium Punch: st.mp

Anti-Airs: Part 2

Standing Medium Kick: st.mk

Anti-Airs: Part 3

Jump Back Light Punch: ub+lp +

The V-Reversal

During Blockstun: f+3P +

Cross Ups

Jump Forward lk +
Jump Forward mk +

Canceling Normals into Specials

Crouching Hard Punch Cancelled into hp Thunder Clap:
cr.hp xx qcb+hp
+xx+

Canceling Specials into Critical Arts

Heavy Punch Thunder Clap xx Inazuma Spin Hold:
qcb+hp xx qcf qcf+k
+xx+

Learning Combos

The Complete Combo:
hp Thunder Clap > f+hp > (Thunder Clap Hits Opponent) > f+hp xx st.hp xx hp Bold Charge
+ (Hold) >+> (Thunder Clap Hits Opponent) >+xxxx+
Step 1: + (Hold) >+ Space the hp Thunder Clap so that you can hit your opponent with f+hp before they are hit with the Thunder Clap. Perfectly spaced after Sunset Wheel (qcb+k).
Step 2: +> (Thunder Clap Hits Opponent) >+ In practice, this will not combo because the Thunder Clap is not on screen. Simply perform a f+hp immediately following a f+hp. If you perform the target combo you have attempted to link the f+hp too quickly.
Step 3: +xx
Step 4: xx+ In Practice this will not combo because hp Bolt Charge whiffs on grounded opponents.

Neutral Whiff Punishing

Whiff Punishing Zangief’s st.hp:
cr.mk xx lp Bolt Charge
+xx+

Projectile Management

Cancel out the projectile with a Thunder Clap of your own:
+
Use EX Bolt Charge to absorb and pass through the projectile:
+
Pass through the projectile with EX Sunset Wheel:
+
Neutral jump to pass over the projectile:

Use Inazuma Spin Hold to pass through and punish the projectile:
+

Safe Spacing

Determine the safe range of st.hk () so that it will not be punished by 4f or faster attacks.

Hit Confirms

Typical Hit Confirm: hp Thunder Clap > cr.mp xx mp Bolt Charge
+>+xx+>
Hit Confirm off Lights: cr.lk > cr.lp xx lp Bolt Charge
+>+xx+
The Single Hit Confirm: f+hp > st.lp > st.lp xx lp Bolt Charge
+>>xx+

Frame Trap Confirms

Frame Trap Confirm: st.mp > st.mk > st.mk xx V-Trigger > cr.hp xx EX Thunder Clap > hp Bolt Charge
> (CH) >xx+>+xx+>+
Frame Trap with EX Thunder Clap: EX Thunder Clap > st.mk > cr.mp xx mp Bolt Charge > Rodeo Break
+> (CH) >+xx+>
Frame Trap into Sunset Wheel: st.lp > hk Sunset Wheel
>+

Punishing

The Crush Counter: st.hp xx f+V-Skill > cr.hp xx mp Bolt Charge xx Rodeo Break
xx++>+xx+>
The Common Punish: cr.mp xx mp Bolt Charge xx Rodeo Break
+xx+>
The Light Confirm: st.lk xx lp Bolt Charge
xx+

Meaties

Meaty Setup from Sunset Wheel:
Quick or Back Rise: Sunset Wheel > lp Bolt Charge
+> (Quick or Back Rise) +
Note: This setup allows you to link a st.lp after the lp Bolt Charge.
Delayed Wakeup: Sunset Wheel > lp Bolt Charge > st.mk > st.mp
+> (Delayed Wakeup) +>>
Bonus Meaty V-Skill:
Air Reset into Meaty V-Skill: cr.hp xx EX Thunder Clap > Slight Step Forward > st.mk xx V-Skill > st.lp xx lp Bolt Charge
+xx+ >>xx+>xx+

Anti-Air Cross Under

Anti-Air: st.mp > f+V-Skill
Anti-Air >++

Safe Jumps and Testing Setups

3f Reversal Hard Knockdown Safe Jump: CC cr.hk > Forward Dash > st.lk > Neutral Jump > Latest Possible j.hp > Block
Crush Counter +>>>> Latest Possible >
Safe Crossover EX Thunder Clap: CC cr.hk > EX Thunder Clap > V-Skill
Crush Counter +>+>+

Instant Overhead

Tall Body Instant Overhead:
Jumping lk
Jumping mk

The Basic Option Select

In the Neutral: cr.mp xx mp Bolt Charge > Rodeo Break
+ OS +>

“The Shimmy”

Shimmy Into: st.mp, cr.mp, st.mk, cr.mk

+

+
submitted by Joe_Munday to StreetFighter [link] [comments]


2017.03.04 06:28 S01780 [UN] U.S. Ambassador rejects Brazilian 'NPT historical revisionism' in long winded speech

IUnited Nations General Assembly, New York City, New York
 
General Address by U.S. Permanent Ambassador Lisa A. Kelly
 
When the United States and the Soviet Union deposited instruments of ratification regarding the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons on March 5th, 1970, the agreement sat as the capstone of a historic period of negotiation between two nuclear armed nations, with ended with a mutually agreed upon treatise that largely averted the proliferation of weapons to allied NATO and Warsaw states. Indeed, beginning with the initial U.S. proposal in the ENDC on March 12th, 1962, both nations labored intensively for a comprehensive agreement without a 'shred of daylight' in between the lines, so to speak; as, according to then Secretary of State Rusk, "... (it would be) hard to see how we could pretend there was a treaty if the public interpretation given to it by the USSR and the US is directly contradictory on a crucial point."
However, there has recently been debate on the floor regarding the nature of the current Russian Nuclear Sharing Network in relation to the United States' longstanding program, brought forward by the ambassador from Brazil, and echoed by the delegation from Russia, which seems to have forgotten history. The United States would like to expunge, for the record, the misconception held by both states and their proposed condemnation. These calls, which rewrite the proven history of the NPT, are ignorant of the historical pretext of the agreement, which was written by a joint US-USSR delegation.
First, we examine the nature of the NATO nuclear sharing program. Proposed in 1949 at a Ministerial-level NATO summit in Brussels, the transfer of US nuclear weapons to the European continent began in 1953, with the first nuclear weapons arriving in September of 1954. These weapons were, and remain, under the positive control of the United States only; they are transferable to authority of the NATO Supreme Allied Commander, who is by law only ever a United States citizen and officer, only by authority of the President of the United States, which has never occurred in the history of the program.
The weapons are inert across Europe - nuclear warheads can only be mated and armed after release by the US for launch, at which point they would come under the control of SACEUR, NATO, an American commander; they have never been released. This policy is a matter of United States law, and has been since 1946, with the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (PL 585), which was replaced by the US Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, Section 92, 42 USC 2122, Washington, DC, in 1954, and exists to this day.
We must contrast this to the Russian Nuclear Sharing Network, which according to Moscow, would see "12 Iskander-M ballistic missiles based in their country, that would be operated by a mixed crew of Russian and domestic forces." Joint operation of nuclear capable delivery systems is a violation of Article I and II of the treaty, in contrast to the US chain of custody, which remains sole American operation of all systems, with no warheads attached to delivery systems across Europe.
Second, we examine the historical context of the NPT as a mutual agreement between the USSR and the US with the full understanding that the NATO nuclear sharing program was lawful and integrated into the agreement. In the late 50's and early 60's, the United States worked with it's European allies towards the establishment of a true nuclear sharing Multi-Lateral Force (MLF), which would have seen West Germany have a voice in the use of nuclear weapons courtesy of the NATO distributed sharing programs unlike the current agreement. The MLF would have consisted of bombers, submarines, and tactical nuclear weapons manned by mixed-nationality crews, with participation open to all NATO states, under SACEUR’s command. Somewhat of a predecessor to negotiations for the NPT, a huge U.S. diplomatic push to create a shared system alarmed the USSR and Warsaw Pact, sparking the conditions for the agreement.
In response to the developing situation, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev informed the members of the Warsaw Pact on October 2nd, 1963, that it would not oppose NATO’s nuclear sharing arrangements, “as long as the West German revanchists’ hands would be bound with regard to nuclear weapons by an agreement on non-proliferation.”
Planning between the US, UK, and West Germany soon led to competing proposals, including the Atlantic Nuclear Force (ANF), and antagonized the Soviet leadership, who were vehemently opposed to multilateral nuclear sharing, even within the Warsaw Pact, as exemplified by Soviet Ambassador to the United States Anatoly Dobrynin in 1964, who "rejected any notion of a shared Warsaw Pact deterrent force, and stated that any multi-lateral nuclear force would be the first step towards proliferation." In 1962, with projections showing a possible 20-25 nuclear armed states in the next 25 years, and with negotiations inside NATO turbulent as to the nature of the multilateral sharing program, the US administration approached USSR diplomats with a short proposal of a proto-NPT to gauge interest by the Soviets.
During initial proposal draft exchanges for the NPT by US and USSR diplomats in 1964-65, the USSR made it clear that it would not accept any treaty that permitted an ANF or MLF. A counter-proposal by the Soviets that would eventually form the backbone of the NPT, in September of 1965, included language precluding non-nuclear-weapon states from “the right to participate in the ownership, control or use of nuclear weapons,” with a concomitant obligation on non-nuclear-weapon states not to seek participation, control, or use. The draft mentioned the MLF and ANF, and made no mention of NATO’s then-current arrangements, or any potential nuclear planning or consultation. The United States immediately disagreed on the phrase "participate in," which could apply to the current NATO arrangement of US controlled weapons inside European nations.
However, specific language interpretations, contrary to the assumption of the delegate of Brazil today, were given great care during the next five years; as, according to Spurgeon Keeny of the US National Security Council in October 1965, “unless there were a clear understanding to the contrary, I would interpret this language to prohibit our existing NATO arrangements. This has always been the point that has worried me lying behind our debate with the Soviets on the MLF and a non-proliferation Treaty.” Responding to Chairman Kosygin in 1966, President Johnson sought to clarify the US position on NPT as aligning with A/RES/2088(xx), which both nations had voted for, and which clarified proliferation as "direct or indirect control of nuclear weapons," noting to the Soviets the definition of proliferation, “when a non-nuclear nation acquires its own national capability or the right or ability to fire nuclear weapons without the explicit concurrent decision of an existing nuclear nation."
In 1967, according to a Memorandum from Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr. of the National Security Council Staff to the President’s Special Assistant (Rostow), Soviet Ambassador Dobrynin told Foster that the Soviets were not concerned with present NATO arrangements or more substantive consultation at NATO on nuclear weapons use, and that Soviet questions on what would be allowed under the US draft focused on the definition of control – specifically whether a country could take possession of a US nuclear weapon and decide to use it over US objections. In response, National Security Advisor Walt Rostow noted that, “no American President is going to place in the hands of the Europeans – or anyone else – the right to determine when we are engaged in a nuclear war," and assured the USSR that the United States would never relinquish it's right to control their weapons, and veto their use, as under the current NATO sharing agreement. The Soviets replied that if the MLF and ANF proposals were truly dead, precluding US-allied hardware control, then “the Soviet Union would be fully satisfied and by these provisions (...) all loopholes would have been closed.”
During following negotiations, the Soviets dropped their language prohibiting “participation in” nuclear arrangements, along with proposals prohibiting “access” to nuclear weapons, language that prohibited training (e.g., “information or documentation...” on the use of nuclear weapons) and “emplacement” on Allied territory. In negotiations clarifying the provisional drafts of the NPT from this point forward, language in Article I and II remained unchanged, with the US and the USSR working to ratify Article III safeguards provisions, as well as further efforts to close off peaceful nuclear explosion exceptions, security assurances, general and complete disarmament, and nuclear weapons-free zones.
The NPT entered into force on 5 March 1970, with Article I and Article II fully accepting of the NATO nuclear sharing agreement: "hardware" in control of the United States only.
Therefore, in recorded history, the Soviet Union and the United States had drafted a treaty fully accepting of the intricate nuclear situation present in Europe. It is not only ludicrous for any other nation to suggest that the United States and the Soviet Union would simply enter into an agreement, drafted over eight years of delicate negotiations, with the full acceptance of a US violation of the main provisions of an agreement. Soviet statements, and their very ratification of the NPT, directly contradict the strange Brazilian insistence on "decades" of violation as a "different interpretation."
However, returning to the present, the Russian Federation has violated this agreement in a single key way that the United States and the Soviet Union did not: proliferation of joint hardware control of nuclear weapons.
The United States will note to those assembled that we did not propose a condemnation of the Russian program; we do, however, object to a violation of the NPT that our forefathers worked for years to prevent. Furthermore, we object to the placement of nuclear weapons in response to a non-nuclear, non-military provocation, and the resultant strategic destabilization this has accrued in response.
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2017.01.29 01:36 CruzeiroDoSul Vasco da Gama plays against Fluminense tomorrow (29/01) — this is why you should watch it

Tomorrow (29/01), at 19h00 in GMT time (17h00 in local time), Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama will host Fluminense Football Club at the Estádio Nilton Santos for the opening round of the 2017 Campeonato Carioca.

Brief Introduction

Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama was founded in 1898 by the Portuguese community of Rio de Janeiro as a rowing club, in the wake of the 400th anniversary of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama's first voyage. Its football department, founded in 1915, takes pride in its pioneering black and blue-collar players, in stark contrast to the other clubs' aristocratic nature.
The club's nine million supporters, scattered all over the country, boastfully wear the club's classic white kit, with a black diagonal sash and a Maltese cross at chest level. The club's honours include a Copa Libertadores title, four Campeonato Brasileiro triumphs, one Copa do Brasil trophies and twenty-four Campeonato Carioca wins.
Fluminense Football Club was founded in 1902 by upper-class enthusiasts who were introduced to football while studying in Europe, being immediately captivated by the sport. The club was one of the pioneers of the practise of football in Rio de Janeiro, being one of Rio de Janeiro's football league's founding clubs, and its first champion.
Fluminense first adopted grey and white as its main colours, soon ditching them for its traditional green, white and maroon kits. The club has won the Campeonato Brasileiro four times, the Copa do Brasil once, and the Campeonato Carioca thirty-one times since 1906.

The Clássico dos Gigantes

Vasco da Gama and Fluminense first met in a friendly in 1923, resulting in a 3:2 for the former. Since then, they have met in 361 matches, resulting in 141 wins for the former, 118 wins for the latter and 102 ties. The derby only received its current moniker in 2006, when Brazilian newspaper Lance! held a public vote to settle it.
Fluminense built its first stadium, the Estádio das Laranjeiras, in 1919 for the Copa América. At the time, it was Latin America's biggest, seating 18 000 supporters. It was Vasco da Gama who broke this record, inaugurating the São Januário in 1927, in a match against Santos. São Januário once accomodated 40 000 supporters and still is Vasco da Gama's main stadium, while the Estádio das Laranjeiras had to be reduced in the late 50's and is now used as Fluminense's training ground.
The two sides have met in numerous finals, the most illustrious of which being the 1984 Campeonato Brasileiro final. Vasco had obliterated Portuguesa and trounced Grêmio en route to the final, while Fluminense thrashed Coritiba and defeated Corinthians to contest it. Fluminense won the first leg with a single goal from Romerito and held a 0:0 tie in the second leg in order to win its second national league title. The 128 781 supporters who came to see the second leg in the Maracanã still stand as the derby's largest attendance. The two teams drew more than 100 thousand supporters eleven times in total thorough the XX century.
Several idols from the two teams went on to leave their marks at the history of the derby. Roberto Dinamite, Vasco da Gama's most notable player, scored 36 of his 708 goals for his club in this derby, establishing himself as the Clássico dos Gigantes' top scorer. Romário, Edmundo, Felipe, Paulo Cézar Caju and Darío Conca are some footballers that excelled at both clubs.

Supporters

Both clubs have passionate supporters. While Vasco da Gama's fans are attached to the Maltese cross that is mentioned in their anthem, Fluminense's fans have adopted rice powder as their symbol. Both of them keep up with pop music, adapting famous supporters' songs into chants. Vasco da Gama's supporters took Anna Júlia, from Los Hermanos (whose lead singer, Marcelo Camilo, is a passionate Vascaíno), and created Anna Júlia Vascaína. Meanwhile, Fluminense's supporters adapted Rádio Pirata, from RPM (whose lead singer, Paulo Roberto, is an illustrious Tricolor), in order to create Rádio Pirata Tricolor.

Match Preview

Vasco da Gama Fluminense
Martín Silva GK GK Diego Cavalieri
Yago Pikachu RB RB Lucas
Luan CB CB Renato Chaves
Rodrigo CB CB Henrique
Henrique LB LB Léo
Julio dos Santos DM DM Orejuela
Andrezinho DM DM Douglas
Nenê AM RW Wellington Silva
Damián Escudero AM LW Gustavo Scarpa
Eder Luis CF AM Sornoza
Thalles CF CF Henrique Dourado
Cristóvão Borges MG MG Abel Braga
KICK-OFF 17h00 GMT-2
VENUE Estádio Nilton Santos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
COMPETITION Campeonato Carioca
STREAM Globo through TudoTV
VASCO DA GAMA /vasco
FLUMINENSE /nense
BRAZILIAN FOOTBALL /futebol

Current Situation

Vasco da Gama has gone through rough times recently, being relegated twice in the last four years. Although they were promoted back to the Brazilian First Division last year, manager Cristóvão Borges will have to deal with an ageing, middling side, although with a few stand-outs. The club has brought in a few players this transfer window to improve their attacking sector.
Fluminense, after going on a ten-match winless streak, hired Abel Braga for the third time as coach to get their house in order. Although the club hasn't brought in many players this transfer window, their squad is strong and competition for minutes will be harsh. The youth academy has many promising athletes which can be promoted to the main team or even sold to Europe throughout the season as well.

Key Players

Nenê, after an illustrious career in Europe, playing for Monaco and Paris Saint-Germain, came back to Brazil in 2015, establishing himself as an important staple in Vasco da Gama's squad. He arrived amidst a disastrous Campeonato Brasileiro campaign, in which the club had won 13 points in 23 matches, and helped the club rebound in the league. Although his efforts were ultimately futile as the club was relegated in the last round, he was praised as one of the best players in the league and decided to stay in 2016, helping Vasco da Gama as they were promoted to the First Division again.
Martín Silva came from Paraguayan side Olimpia after a stunning campaign in the 2013 Copa Libertadores and soon became a regular starter, shining between the posts for Vasco da Gama. The experienced keeper is also sometimes called up for the Uruguayan national team, with eight caps on the senior side.
Luan came from Vasco da Gama's youth academy and has transitioned very well into the senior team. A skilled, young centre-back, he won a gold medal at the Rio Olympics last year and he was recently called up to Brazil's friendly against Colombia.
Gustavo Scarpa is set to make his debut for Fluminense this season, after missing the first match due to a call-up for the friendly between Brazil and Colombia. Sporting the number 10 jersey once worn by Rivellino, he's become the club's main player, taking the leadership role last fulfilled by Fred until he left last season.
Sornoza confirmed his transfer to Fluminense before his previous club, Independiente del Vale, contested the 2016 Copa Libertadores final against Atlético Nacional, but he only came to Rio de Janeiro in January. In spite of only joining the club recently, he's already meshing with the rest of the squad, proving his worth in his first match last Wednesday.
Wellington Silva was Fluminense's most promising prospect in the late 00's, being sold in 2011 to Arsenal. He returned to the club in 2016 after more than five years touring Europe and has since proven himself to be an essential staple in the club's squad. A short, lightweight winger, he's proven himself to be a very creative playmaker, digging his way through the opponent's defence with his joga bonito playstyle.
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2017.01.23 17:40 mi-16evil Box Office Week: Split surprises at #1 with a whopping $40.1 mil opening, the best original M. Night premiere since The Village, while xXX: The Return of Xander Cage opens to a solid $20 mil at #2. Also, Rogue One officially passed $1 bil worldwide this week.

Rank Title Domestic Gross (Weekend) Worldwide Gross (Cume) Week #
1 Split $40,190,000 $45,990,000 1
2 xXx: The Return of Xander Cage $20,000,000 $70,500,000 1
3 Hidden Figures $16,250,000 $84,238,751 5
4 Sing $9,036,530 $427,961,725 5
5 La La Land $8,350,000 $173,380,497 7
Notable Box Office Stories:
Films Reddit Wants to Follow
This is a segment where we keep a weekly tally of currently showing films that aren't in the Top 5 that fellow redditors want updates on. If you'd like me to add a film to this chart, make a comment in this thread.
Title Domestic Gross (Cume) Worldwide Gross (Cume) Budget Week #
Your Name N/A $331,600,000 Unk 21
Moonlight $15,826,127 $15,826,127 $5 mil 14
Doctor Strange $231,490,380 $659,435,214 $165 mil 12
Arrival $95,665,000 $163,159,006 $47 mil 11
Fantastic Beasts and Where To Find Them $231,277,992 $805,777,992 $180 mil 10
Moana $236,784,702 $509,284,702 $150 mil 9
Rogue One: A Star Wars Story $512,201,563 $1,011,301,563 $200 mil 6
Notable Film Closings
N/A
As always /boxoffice is a great place to share links and other conversations about box office news.
Also you can see the archive of all Box Office Week posts at /moviesboxoffice.
submitted by mi-16evil to movies [link] [comments]


2016.12.24 16:52 FreeCandyVanDriver The History of Naming Conventions (Version 3.0)

It's back yet again.
For the second time, the semi-annual History of Naming Conventions makes its annual Christmas post. And this time, it's bigger, more detailed, and it didn't fuck up all the Portuguese clubs.
Some of you might remember that I have posted this twice before, but seeing as I still get PM's almost daily after originally posting up my first History of Naming Conventions at Christmas last year, I figured it was high time to redo the post and try to clean it up a fair bit. The follow-up post, the "Redux" edition, cleaned it up a bit more, and sorted the info alphabetically. This update, I have added even more info, based entirely on user suggestions for the previous two versions.
Happy Holidays, and I hope you enjoy version 3.0 of the "History of Naming Conventions..."

History Of Naming Conventions

While many fans understand that clubs have differing naming conventions, such as Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday, and Sheffield F.C., many fans have absolutely no idea what those specific conventions imply. I'm here to set the record straight on why your club is named why it is. But let's start with the basics first, like the first football team, Sheffield F.C., and work our way up.

The Basics: “F.C.”

“F.C.” Stands for “Football Club.” From the outset, Sheffield F.C. used the term “F.C.” to differentiate it from the other sports club in Sheffield at the time – the rugby club named that was simply named “Sheffield.”
Since football was a brand new thing, the club adopted the “F.C.” to simply allow the locals to know that it wasn't the rugby team – it was the other Sheffield club playing that new sport where someone can't use their hands.
And since rugby clubs had sprouted up all over England long before the game we know as "modern" football became popular, almost every new football club took the naming convention of “F.C.”
At this point, you might be asking yourself, “Why 'club' though?” At that time, all sporting groups were “clubs,” as it was seen as more of a hobby than a profession or a business.
So you might be thinking “Okay, but what about A.F.C.?” Simple: the founding of football did not coincide with a codified set of rules. At the time, several set of rules were around, including “Sheffield Rules” and the familiar “Association Football Rules”. In cities that had a club that played under Sheffield Rules were names “F.C.” and another club that played under Association Football Rules, that club would take the “A.F.C.” convention. “A.F.C.” disappeared for the most part as most teams played under the Association Football Rules by the end of the 19th century, although some teams have kept their old name still to this day.
That's how the whole “F.C.” started.
But what about all of the others? Where did they come from? Why is there teams that use the term “Old Boys”? The following list will go through damn near each and every variation.
Before we do that, however, it pays to remember that the “rules” behind each naming convention are not always 100% for each and every club. Some clubs have just chosen to use the naming convention for the sound of it. Others have used it because it helped with marketing. And who knows why they chose 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig for a name – well, I know why, and you are about to.
We're breaking this down into two separate parts, Initials and Words, that way you can look up information substantially easier.

The List of Naming Conventions:

The Important Ones:

These two form the basis of most club structures - and will be referenced throughout the massive list below. Understanding these two in advance will make your life easier when reading through the list.
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
F.C. Football Club Worldwide F.C. is used by many teams throughout the world and is simply to brand the team as a football club. Historically used to differentiate between football and rugby clubs playing in the same town, the naming convention became the most commonly used in football, with many variations based on local language spelling the words "Football Club" Sheffield F.C. (England)
S.C. (1) Sports Club (various spellings) Worldwide S.C. is used by teams throughout the world where the founding of the team originated from an organized group of individuals in order to provide structure to activities. Oftentimes it's a youth organization. The use of S.C. implies that the organization running the clubs have clubs in more than one sport. S.C. is important to note as many teams throughout the world will have initials that translate into this specific definition in English. Simba S.C. (Tanzania)

The Initials:

(This is set up in alphabetical order, minus the first two entries, which are deemed important enough that you need to know them before others as they are referenced frequently throughout the list.)
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
AA Atletiek Associatie Low Countries Dutch for "Athletic Association" with the implied meaning behind the typical usage of "Sports Club." Traditionally, they offer teams and training in several sports beyond football AA Gent, now known as KAA Gent (Belgium)
A.C. Associazione Calcio Italy Used in Italian-speaking regions, “Associazione Calcio" translates into English as “Football Association” and is the Italian equivalent of “A.F.C.” A.C. Milan (Italy)
A.D. (1) Asociación Deportiva or Agrupación Deportiva Spain, Latin America The Spanish-language version of “SA”, this translates roughly into Sports Association. It's often found in Spanish speaking nations throughout the world, but particularly in Spain itself A.D. Isidro Metapán (El Salvador)
A.D. (2) Associação Desportiva Portugal The Portuguese-language version of “SA”, this translates loosely into Sports Association and is used in the same context AD Nogueirense (Portugal)
A.S. Association Sportive (various spellings) France, Italy, Africa Used primarily in French and Italian speaking nations, it translates as “Sports Association.” Many clubs use this in former French colonies, as well as Italy and France A.S. Douanes (Niger)
A.S.A. (1) Asociația Sportivă Armatei (various spellings) Eastern Europe This roughly translates into “Army Sports Association”, which implies that the club is run by the army, but is not always the case as clubs with A.S.A can be independently run. ASA București, now CSA Steaua București (Romania)
A.S.A. (2) Asociația Sportivă Ardealul Romania This translates into "Transylvania Sports Association", and found exclusively in Romania ASA 2013 Târgu Mureș (Romania)
A.S.D. Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Italy Roughly translates to "Amateur Sports Association”, and found exclusively in Italian-speaking communities. Usage denotes pure amateur clubs (either current or historical) and are often clubs run by the local municipalities. They offer programs from under-4 through Adult leagues. Not many are found near the top of the pyramid, but they form the basis of youth football clubs in Italy A.S.D. Sanremese (Italy)
B (1) Boldklub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". As the single letter "B", it is found almost exclusively in Denmark, but has been used throughout Scandinavia. Vejle Boldklub, known as VB (Denmark)
B (2) "B" Squad Worldwide In this instance the letter "B" indicates that this club is the secondary team to the primary Adult team fielded by the organization, and often indicates the "reserve" squad for professional teams Real Betis B (Spain)
B.K. Ballklubb (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". Found throughout Scandinavian nations and is fairly common. Rosenborg BK (Norway)
BSG Betriebssportgemeinschaft German speaking nations Translates as "Sports Associations" with the same connotations as "Sports Assications", these clubs also were almost always within the government control of the GDEast German government during the Cold War. Used to denote the Sports Branch of particular trade associations, such as Dynamo, Lokomotive, and Stahl BSG Wismut Aue, now FC Erzgebirge Aue (Germany)
BSV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BSV Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, known as Borussia Dortmund (Germany)
BV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BV Cloppenburg Frauen (Germany)
C Combinatie Netherlands Translates into "Combined", meaning that the club was founded as a merger between two existing clubs RKC Waalwijk (Netherlands)
C.A. Club Atlético or Clube Atlético Spain, Portugal, Latin America Translates into “Athletic Club”, these clubs are usually privately owned teams that have an outreach program within the community. Several teams with C.A. do not, however, and have the name as a basis to show that it is sponsored by a private, members-only club. C.A. Progreso (Uruguay)
C.D. Club Deportivo or Clube Desportivo Spain, Portugal, Latin America This translates into “Sports Club” in English, and is used in the same manner. Club Deportivo Pacífico FC (Peru)
C.F. Club Football (various spellings) Worldwide Found primarily in Spanish and Portuguese speaking nations, C.F. holds the same meaning as "Football Club." It is used in nations where the local language switches the order of words C.F. Monterrey (Mexico)
C.F.C. Cricket Football Club or Cricket & Football Club Worldwide Fairly rare, C.F.C is used either for teams comprised of cricket players or for a football club founded by a dedicated Cricket Club. These clubs are founded almost exclusively by British expats in major cities throughout the world. Genoa C.F.C. (Italy)
C.S. Club Sport Latin America Used with the same meaning as Sport Club
CSCA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Eastern Europe CSCA is a spelling variation of CSKA, see CSKA for details CSCA-Rapid Chisinau (Moldova) - Rebranded as FC Steaua București
CSA Clubul Sportiv al Armatei Eastern Europe Translated as "Army Sports Club", this implies that the team is affiliated with the army, as well as fielding teams in multiple sports CSA Steaua București (Romania)
CSKA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Nations CSKA is a hold-over from the Soviet-Bloc era. There are several various spellings of the initials that mean "Central Army Sports Club", such as CSCA and CWKS. Traditionally, these teams were comprised of members of the Army, but several teams were known to pay players to “join the army” and gave out higher incomes than to the common athlete/soldiers. PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
CWKS Central Army Sports Club Poland In Poland, these teams were either comprised of Army players or were freestanding clubs that were merged with Army clubs but still run independently of the army structure. A variation of CSKA. CWKS Resovia Rzeszow (Poland)
DJK Deutsche Jugendkraft Germany Translated into "German Youth Power", these clubs typically have a traditional youth development component. These culbs are often founded to give their youth outreach players a place to play after they have come of age DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf (Germany)
E.C. Esporte Clube Brazil This means "Sports Club" in Portuguese and are found exclusively in Brazil. They serve the same role as a traditional community-based organization like Sport Clubs. Esporte Clube Bahia (Brazil)
e.V. eingetragener Verein German speaking nations Loosely translated into "Registered Association", it indicates that the club is officially registered with the government Fußballclub Rot-Weiß Erfurt e.V. (Germany)
F.B.C. Foot Ball Club South America Rarely used. Found in Peru almost exclusively, and most likely comes from the separating of the two syllables in "foot-ball" into two separate words when using "Football Club" as a part of the clubs name FBC Melgar (Peru)
FF (1) Fotbollförening (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as either "Football Club" or "Sports Club", depending on the club using it Malmö FF (Sweden)
FF (2) Fodsports forening (various spellings) Scandinavia Literally translated as "Foot Sport Association", these clubs are often the same as Sports Clubs, although a few offer only Football as a sport. Viborg Fodsports Forening, known as VFF (Denmark)
F.F.C. Frauenfußballclub German speaking nations Used in locations where the local word for “Women's” starts with the letter “F,” often used by clubs in Germany. 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam (Germany)
F.K. Football Klub (various spellings) Worldwide Meaning "football Club", F.K. is used in nations where the word “Club” is started with the letter “K,” FK Dinamo-Rīnuži (Latvia)
FSV Fussball- und Sportverein Germany Translates to "Football and Sports Clubs," and is to be used in the same manner as "Sports Club." 1. FSV Mainz 05 (Germany)
G.D. Grupo Desportivo Portugal Portuguese for "Sports Group", this is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" G.D. Fabril (Portugal)
GF Gymnastikforening Denmark Found almost exclusively in Denmark, the literal translation is "Gymnastics Association." These football clubs were founded by groups that already had a background in offering gymnastics programs AGF Aarhus (Denmark)
GIF Gymnastik- & Idrottsförening Sweden, Scandinavia Loosely translates into "Athletic & Sports Association" and is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" GIF Sundsvall (Sweden)
GKS Górniczy Klub Sportowy Poland Translates into "Mining Sport Club", where the "G" denotes a mining "KS" (Klub Sportowy), and is used in the same manner GKS Katowice (Poland)
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung German speaking nations While not an exact translation, it's meaning is the same as Limited Liability Company. This indicates that the club is not publicly traded nor it is a community-owned club held in a trust. They are a privately-owned business in which the individual owners are not liable for debts incurred by the club itself Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH (Germany)
IF Idrottsförening Scandinavia Swedish for “Sports Association”, but is often used in the same way that we would imagine a “Sports Club” being used by English speakers. Djurgårdens IF (Sweden)
IFK Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Sweden, Finland Swedish for "Sporting Society Comrades,” clubs within the IFK are a part of an over-arching Scandinavian Youth organization. They trace their roots back more than 110 years and spread throughout Scandinavia. Currently the IFK's are still focused on multiple sports, and still exist in both Sweden and Finland. IFK Göteborg (Sweden)
IK Idræts Klub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translated into "Sports Club," it's use is more like a “S & C/Sports & Culture” club when it is used by teams in Denmark that are made up of players in the foreign diaspora. However, for teams that are not made up of foreign-born players, IK is used in the same fashion as “Sports Club.” Hobro IK (Denmark)
IL Idrettslag Norway Used almost exclusively in Norway, it translates into “Sports Club” with the same meaning implied. Flekkerøy IL (Norway)
IS Idrottsällskap Sweden Loosely translated into "Sports Society", it holds the same meaning as Sports Club. Örgryte IS (Sweden)
J.K./JK (1) Jimnastik Kulübü Turkey Translated into "gymnastics club", it's use indicates that the club itself has either a history of operating a Gymnastics club or is currently running one. In modern usage, these clubs are seen the same way as one sees the usage of "Sports Club" Beşiktaş J.K. (Turkey)
JK (2) Jalkapalloklubi or Jalkapallokerho Finland Loosely translates into "Football Club" and holds the same meaning Jyväskylän Jalkapalloklubi, known as JJK (Finland)
K Koninklijke Belgium Literally translates into "Royal". Any club with 50 years of continued existence can add "Koninklijke" to their name in Belgium. Has no bearing on the type of club. K. Lierse S.K. (Belgium)
KAA Koninklijke Atletiek Associatie Belgium, Low Countires Literally translates to "Royal Athletics Association", and is used in the same fashion as "Sports Club" is. These clubs started off as having "AA", as opposed to "KAA", as teams are allowed to add "Koninklijke" (Royal) to their club name after 50 years of continued existence K.A.A. Gent (Belgium)
K.S. Klub Sportowy Poland This directly translates into “Sports Club”, and has the same connotation and usage Piast Gliwice K.S. (Poland)
M Mestský Central Europe, Slovak speaking Nations Literally translated as "City", it denotes the location of the team. Usually precedes other initials, such as MFK MFK Dubnica (Slovakia)
N.K. Nogometni klub Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Loosely translates into and is the equivalent to “Football Club”. common at both the upper-tier clubs and lower leagues NK Svoboda (Slovenia)
P.F.C. Professional Football Club Worldwide a rare usage, usually indicates a team that has had an amateur side in previous years or still maintains clubs in other sports with an amateur status. Also has found usage as former Government-run teams, such as army, taxation, or police clubs PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
PS Persatuan Sepakbola Indonesia Translated into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as "Football Club" PS Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesia)
PK Pallokerho Finland Translates into "Ball Club", and hold the same connotation as "Football Club" PK-35 Vantaa (Finland)
PV Palloveikot Finland Loosely translates into "Ball Fraternity", it's used in the same way as "Social Club" would be used Tampereen Pallo-Veikot (Finland)
R (1) Royal Worldwide Typically added to a club's name after either 50 years of existence or by royal decree via patronage. had no bearing on the organizational operations of the club R Antwerp F.C. (Belgium)
R (2) Regatta (various spellings) Worldwide While fairly rare, the usage of "R" within this context signifies a historical tie with a rowing or sailing club Botafogo R (Brazil)
RC (3) Racing/Racing Club (various spellings) Worldwide The usage of "Racing" and "Racing Club" does not necessarily imply anything, but several teams that use a variation of it have historical ties to Track & Field groups, while others have ties to horse racing and even racing various types of boats. It carries zero significance to how the club currently operates, however. RC Lens (France)
R (4) Radnički Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Meaning "Worker", these clubs are often founded by the "working class" of a town. Most often used a precursor to another abbreviation RNK Split (Croatia)
RB Rasenballsport Fantasyland This term is totally made up by Red Bull to circumvent branding rules in international competitions, yet they claim it's a legitimate term that translates into "Lawn Ball Sport". To any reasonable person, "RB" stands solely for the most crass modern marketing in football. RB Leipzig (Germany)
R.C.D. Real Club Deportivo Spain Translated into "Royal Sports Club," it implies a Sports Club with a royal charter. Implies the same as the term "Sports Club" RCD Mallorca (Spain)
S.A. Sports Association (various spellings) Worldwide These are found in many nations regardless of local language. S.A. may imply multiple teams being fielded - more than one football team, more than one gender, and even more than one sport. A deceptively vague term, and rarely used in English-speaking nations due to the lack of any defined meaning.
S.A.D. Sociedad Anónima Deportiva Spain, Spanish-speaking nations Loosely translated into "Limited Sports Society," this term that the club is a type of LLC. Operates in a similar fashion to GmbH clubs in German-speaking nations Sevilla Fútbol Club, S.A.D. (Spain)
S.C. (2) Soccer Club Worldwide Carries the same meaning as F.C., and it is used primarily in nations where the sport of football is referred to as soccer Columbus Crew SC (United States)
S.C. (3), S&C (4) Sports & Culture (various combinations) Mediterranean regions "Sports & Culture" is used by various club associations to include a community enrichment program as well as sports for both children and adults. N/A
S.D. Sociedad Deportiva Spain, Latin America Directly translates into "Sports Society," and carries the same implied meaning as "Sport Club" SD Ponferradina (Spain)
SE Sociedade Esportiva Brazil Portuguese for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. SE Palmeiras (Brazil)
SG Sportgemeinschaft German-speaking nations Translates into "Sports Association," and is most often used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SG Wattenscheid 09 (Germany)
S.K. (1) Spor Kulübü Turkey Directly translates into "Sports Club" and carries the same connotation. Galatasaray S.K. (Turkey)
S.K. (2) Sportsklubben (various spellings) Scandinavia, Worldwide Directly translates into "Sports Club," these clubs are not beholden to typical conventions. While they are frequently found in Scandinavia, they can be found throughout the world SK Brann (Norway)
SpVgg Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Translates into "Playing Association," these clubs are like other "Sports Clubs" but usually focus on non-gymnastic sports in addition to football. SpVgg Greuther Fürth (Germany)
S.S. Società Sportiva Italy, Malta Italian for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. Found in Italy to a very small extent, these are fairly common on the island of Malta. S.S. Lazio (Italy)
SSV Schwimmsportverein or Sport- und Schwimmverein Germany Translates to "Swim Sport Club" or "Sports and Swimming Club," and is used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SSV Ulm 1846 (Germany)
S.T. Soccer Team Worldwide The usage of Soccer Team is frequently found in English-speaking nations where football is referred to as soccer and often implies a youth development component. This is not always the case, as they are found in non-English speaking nations where the sport is referred to as Football. Bassano Virtus 55 S.T. (Italy)
SSC Società Sportiva Calcio Italy Translates as "Sporting and Football Society" and are considered to be clubs who offer several sports, with football being the focus S.S.C. Napoli (Italy)
S.V. Sportverein (various spellings) Low Countries, Germany Meaning “Sports Club" and used in the same context, S.V. teams are found throughout Western Europe, but mainly within the Low Countries and Germany Hannoversche Sportverein 1896 eV, known as Hannover 96 (Germany)
T.S.V. Turn- und Sportverein German-speaking nations This translates to “Gymnastic and Sporting Club," and is to be considered the same as "Sports Club" TSV 1860 München (Germany)
TuS Turn- und Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Literally translated to "Gymnastic and Gaming Club", used in the same way as "Sports Club" Düsseldorfer TuS Fortuna 1895 e.V. (Germany)
U.C. Unione Calcio Italian-speaking nations Translated directly into "Football Union", these clubs often gain the use of U.C. after a merger with another club. No other significance. U.C. Sampdoria (Italy)
UD Unión Deportiva Spain, Latin America Translates to "Sporting Union" and is used in a similar manner Levante UD (Spain)
U.S. Unione Sportiva Italian-speaking nations Meaning "Sporting Union," these clubs have been renamed after a merger with other groups. They typically offer other sports besides football. U.S. Sassuolo Calcio (Italy)
VfB Verein für Bewegungsspiele German-speaking nations Directly translated into "Club for Exercise games," these clubs are similar to "Sports Clubs" in that they offer other sports in addition to football, but often have a more dedicated push towards to those other sports compared to most "Sports Clubs" VfB Stuttgart (Germany)
VfL Verein für Leibesübungen German-speaking nations Literally translated as "Club for Body exercises," these clubs are often formed by clubs that focus on general overall fitness. There is a tradition of company-founded "VfL" clubs for its workers VfL Wolfsburg (Germany)
VfR Verein für Rasensport German-speaking nations Translates into "Club for Lawnsports," these clubs are more like your traditions "Sports Club" in their offering of other sporting activities VfR Aalen 1921 (Germany)
VV Voetbal Vereniging Low Countries Translates into "Football Association" and carries the same meaning as "Sports Club" VV Steenbergen (Holland)
The Numbers:
Occasionally, you will find numbers within the both the full and proper name of a club as well as the commonly used name for the club. Below is a description on what they mean:
Number Structure Meaning
XXXX - four digits Found throughout the world, this number is almost always the founding year of the club. An example of this is TSV 1860 München.
XX - two digits Found throughout the world, this is the last two numbers in the given century of their founding. Bayer 04 Leverkusen is a popular example of this.
1. - as a precursor Found primarily in Europe, the “1.” in front of the club's name indicates that that club was the first club founded in a city. It's a source of pride for these clubs, and is still used to this day, primarily in Germany. An example of this would be 1. FC Lübars.
The Words:
This section focuses on words that you'll often see in names of several clubs. These words may be to help differentiate between clubs from the same city, they may be tied to their history, their formation, who founded the clubs, or even professional versus amateur status. Like the initials, these rules are not always 100% true, and are to used as guides to help understand the history behind the name for the most teams possible. Yes, there are exceptions to possibly all of these, but the exceptions are much less frequent thean the rule - hence using exceptions.
Word Purpose
Academia (various spellings) Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the world.
Alemannia or Germania An old name for Germany.
Ajax A reference from Greek mythology. Some clubs in Africa and the Americas with the name are affiliated with Ajax of Holland.
Albion A very old name for Great Britain. Used to denote a specific team in a community with more than one club. UK only.
Apollon A reference to the Greek god Apollo. No other significance.
Arsenal Used throughout Europe, these clubs have a traditional association with Weapons manufacturing.
Astra or Asteras Greek for "star," used all over Europe.
Atlas Usually a reference to Greek mythology, occasionally a reference to the mountain range by that name. No other significance.
Athletic Just a general term if used without any other modifier. Found everywhere.
Borussia Latin for Prussia, used by clubs in Germany
Brown A reference to Guillermo Brown/William Brown, an Irish/Argentinian Sea Captain. Argentina only.
Calcio Italian for "football," no special significance if used without another modifier.
Casuals Often used to denote a club's "amateur" status.
Celtic These are clubs that are often founded by members of the Celtic Diaspora and are found throughout the world.
Chernomorets (various spellings) Local language name for the Black Sea, no special significance. Found in Ukraine and Bulgaria.
City Usage of this denotes that the club represents a specific city, and is used to identify a specific club within a city of multiple clubs. Also denotes clubs that are a part of the “City Football Group” - Manchester, Melbourne, and New York City.
Collieries Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily England.
Corinthians References the town of Corinth in Greece, and is often used to allude to the Corinthian ideal of amateurism in sports. Also used to denote an "amateur" club.
Cosmos Short for Cosmopolitan, represents the ideal of multiculturalism. No other significance.
County Denotes a political level of Government, often preceded by the official name of the county. Primarily England.
Days (Specific days of the week) Used to specify specific clubs in communities with more than one club. An example is Sheffield Wednesday (which came from the original Cricket club's name)
Douanes Clubs that are supported by National Customs and Taxation departments. Found in French speaking nations.
Dutch Lions These are clubs owned by the Dutch club F.C. Twente, found only in the U.S.A.
Dynamo (various spellings) Most of these clubs were originally a part of the “Dynamo” Sport society, founded by the Soviets in the early 20th century. Often attached to the Department of Interior Security.
En Avant French for “forward,” no other significance.
Eintracht German for "united," no other significance.
Energy (various spellings) Used throughout the world to denote a connection to the local Electric/Power company
-ense Used after a city's name, used to indicating the club belongs to that city/place. Found in Portuguese speaking nations
Español Simply refers to the country of Spain, although it has been used by members of the Spanish diaspora.
Espoir or Espérance) French for "hope," no other significance. French Speaking nations only.
Estudiantes Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
Excelsior Means “higher”, no other significance
Ferroviário Meaning "rail" in English, it is used to denote a railway-founded club. Found most often in Portuguese-speaking African nations
Fortuna The Greek Goddess of fortune, used throughout the world
Gimnasia (various spellings) Implying Gymnastics. These clubs often have ties with Gymnastics clubs or groups.
Górnik Sometimes abbreviated as GKS, these are clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Poland.
Hapoel An Israeli sporting association that can links to various trades unions. Often left-leaning historically. Israel only.
Hercules or Heracles A reference to the Greek God of strength, courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess. Worldwide.
Hibernian These are clubs that are traditionally founded by members of the Irish Diaspora and are found throughout Scotland, Malta and in Ireland itself.
Hilal Arabic for "Crescent", usually tied to the new crescent moon at the beginning of each month in the Islamic calendar. Found throughout the Arabic speaking world.
Inter or International Denotes clubs that are founded by either immigrants to their location or are using the term to identify themselves differently from other clubs, sometimes by way of splinter groups forming their own club.
Ittihad Arabic for “union,” with the implied meaning of “United” in English.
Juve (also: Juventus, Jeunesse, Juniors, Youth) A reference to youth, no other significance.
Lokomotiv (various spellings) Clubs founded by Railways or railway workers, these clubs can be found throughout the world. Most are professional, but some still have actual railroad workers on their rosters.
Maccabi A reference to the Maccabees, Maccabi is a "Sporting Society" in Israel. Found in several nations with large, Jewish populations. Often affiliated with youth outreach sports.
Metallurg Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Usually Russian-speaking nations with this spelling.
Metalurh Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Ukrainian clubs with this spelling.
Mineros Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Spanish-speaking South American nations.
Mohammedan Denotes clubs founded in the principles of the Muslim faith, usually as youth outreach groups. Found everywhere.
Nacional (various spellings) Means “national”, but usually denotes nothing. Occasionally used for teams of the army, but more often used to identify specific teams in larger markets. Used everywhere.
Old Boys Clubs that were founded to provide football at an age past school age for a particular school.
Olympic (various spellings) References the Olympic Games, but bears no other significance.
Perse- or Persi- A prefix meaning "Football Association" attached to clubs, often found in Indonesia
Petrolero Clubs that have were founded by either workers in the Petrol/Oil industry or by the companies themselves. Found throughout the petrol/oil producing world.
Police (various spellings) Clubs that have an affiliation with governmental policing groups. Often consist of active members of the police force, but some do have professional footballs within their ranks.
Politehnica Clubs with ties to a specific university. Found primarily in Eastern Europe.
Preußen German for "Prussia," no other significance.
Racing References a historical relationship with racing - either Track & Field events, rowing, sailing, or even horse racing. Oftentimes, these clubs used the middle of the racing oval as their original home ground.
Rangers The name occasionally implies a tie-in towards the military or policing, however this is a rare occurrence, as the name traditionally means nothing of significance for the club.
Real Spanish for “Royal”, these clubs have the direct patronage of the Spanish Monarchy. Found in Spanish speaking nations. Excludes Real Salt Lake of the MLS.
Red Bull Found throughout the world, these are clubs that are not only sponsored by the Red Bull Energy Drink company, they are often founded by them. Most people detest the names, even their own fans.
Regatas (various spelling) Often used to denote clubs that have an association with either rowing or sailing, these are mainly found in Brazil.
Rio Branco A reference to José Paranhos, His Excellency The Baron of Rio Branco. The Godfather of Brazilian diplomacy. Found only in Brazil.
Rovers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found primarily in the British Isles.
Royal A word that Belgian clubs can use after 50 years of continuous existence. Can use the German, French, Dutch or English version of the the word.
Ruch Meaning “movement” in Polish. No other significance.
Santos or San It's the Spanish/Portuguese word for “Saint” and/or “Saints”, but it doesn't mean imply anything specific.
Shamrock A national symbol of Ireland, used in both Ireland and the U.S.A. No other significance.
Slavia Just refers to the Slavic people, Found in Eastern Europe and supported by men in matching tracksuits squatting on the sidelines.
Sparta Referencing the Greek town of Sparta, but has no special significance.
Spartak A reference to Spartacus, the slave-turned-leader of a revolt almost two thousand years ago. Found throughout Eastern Europe and Russia.
-spor (ending of a name) Means “sport,” and is found in Turkey.
Sporting This implies that the club is a part of a larger group of teams in various sports. If a club uses the name “Sporting”, it is the name of the overarching group for all the teams in all of the sports that it participates in.
Stål Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Scandinavian with this spelling.
Stade The French word for “stadium.” These clubs are often named after their original home ground.
Stahl Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily German with this spelling.
Stal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Eastern European with this spelling.
Swifts The plural for Swift, a type of bird. No other significance.
Thistle A national symbol of Scotland. No other significance.
Torpedo A reference to the Soviet Volunteer Sports Society, indicates a historical tie to Russia.
United (various spelling) Outside of England, this is indicative of clubs that were founded by the merger of two or more clubs. Sometimes this is used to denote a different club if more than one exist within the same community. Found everywhere.
Universidad (various spellings) Clubs that have ties, usually founding ties, to a University. These are found throughout the world.
Wanderers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found throughout the world, but primarily English-speaking nations.
Welfare A reference to the “Well-being” movement of the early 1900's. These clubs are usually small and community-based. Mainly in England.
Wolves Just implies the animal, no other significance.
Young Boys Clubs with ties to a local school, often used to differentiate between multiple clubs.
Zagłębie Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Only in Poland.
Zenit A reference indicating that the club was once a part of the Zenit Soviet Sports Society or an alliance with the Zenit itself.
So, now you know what "1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig" means. It's the first football club founded in Leipzig and it was started by the railway company for their workers. Pretty fucking cool, huh?
If you have any comments, questions, or just want to point out an exception to the rule, feel free!
-FCVD
submitted by FreeCandyVanDriver to soccer [link] [comments]


2016.10.03 00:36 sgrwck [GEAR] Be on the lookout for Dean Ween's stolen Stratocaster

** UPDATE **
It appears as though the guitar has been located and will be returned to Deaner.
As posted by Mr. Melchiondo himself on the Ween Appreciation Society Facebook group
I've been forced to wait until I had exhausted every single scenario of it being misplaced, accidentally loaded into the wrong vehicle, etc---but on Wednesday night at John and Peter's in New Hope I was loading my amplifier into my truck and when I returned to the club my 196 Stratocaster with a 61 Jazzmaster neck was stolen. (serial number 61936) At first I thought maybe someone loaded it into my truck thinking they were doing me a favor. But I instinctively knew something was wrong. I have talked to every band member, but I can't account for some of the other guys that sat in. If anyone has heard, or saw anything from Wednesday please contact me at 215-693-4215 or email me at [email protected] There will be no questions asked, I just want my guitar back. This guitar was to be the replacement for my other 61 Strat (ole Red) and a lot of time went in to finding the perfect neck, body, hardware etc. The emotional part of this is brutal----the cameras at the club were malfunctioning that evening but the club has been very supportive in helping me find the culprit. Again, I just want the guitar returned, it is irreplaceable and a lot of time and love went into it's construction. It's 55 years old and has a Brazilian Slab rosewood neck, which were discontinued in mid 1962, making it virtually irreplaceable without spending quite a bit of money. I guarantee you this will never happen again. New Hope Police 215-348-7400 if you've heard someone brag about the caper.
Picture
Always shitty to see gear get stolen, even shittier when it's a genuinely humble, helpful, and outreaching musician. Keep an eye out for this beauty, and hopefully the scumbag that stole it gets what's coming for him.
submitted by sgrwck to Guitar [link] [comments]


2016.09.17 20:43 CruzeiroDoSul Corinthians will play against Palmeiras today: here's why you should watch it

Today, Corinthians and Palmeiras will face off at 19h00 GMT (16h00 on local time) for the 26th round of the Brasileirão.
EDIT the match has started. You can follow it here.

Who are these teams and why is this match special?

In the early XX century, the Corinthian Football Club (nowadays known as the Corinthian-Casuals Football Club) was doing excursions around the world. Hailed as the best amateur football team of their time, they visited South Africa, Austria-Hungary, some other places and, most importantly, Brazil, where a group of proletarians was so impressed with them that they decided to create a football club and name it after them; and thus, Sport Club Corinthians Paulista was born. Their 28 million fans in Brazil are proud to flaunt the six national league ( Brasileirão), the two nacional cup ( Copa do Brasil), the single Libertadores and the twenty-seven state championships ( Paulistão) that the club has won in its 106 years of history.
Founded by Italian immigrants in 1914, the Palestra Italia soon experienced success, dominating the Paulistão tournaments in the 1920's and 1930's. Brazil, however, got involved in the Second World War, fighting alongside the Allies in an effort to take Italy off the hands of Mussolini. Due to its connections with the Italo-Brazilian community, the club was renamed Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras. Its 12 million supporters all around the country boastfully display their honours: eight national leagues ( Brasileirão), three national cups ( Copa do Brasil), one Libertadores and twenty-two state championships ( Paulistão).
The confront between both has earned the nickname of Derby Paulista. They have faced each other 351 times before, with 120 victories to Corinthians and 124 to Palmeiras. Among their most memorable matches, one might include the Brasileirão final in 1994, when both teams faced off twice to decide the winner of the national league (Palmeiras won the first match by 3:1 and tied the second by 1:1), the Libertadores quarterfinal of 1999 (when Palmeiras defeated Corinthians on penalties and eventually won the title) and the Paulistão final of 1999 (when Corinthians won the first match by 3:0 and, on the second one, tied by 2:2, the Corinthians players started doing keepie uppies; chaos ensued and the match was ended at 76').

What is at stake here?

Corinthians had a great 2015, dominating the league and winning the league single-handedly. In 2016, however, their winning squad was reduced to shambles. Many of its star players, including Jadson, Ralf, Renato Augusto and Vágner Love, left even before the Libertadores started, leaving Tite scratching his head, trying to organise the team with what was left. Despite this, the team was challenging for the title until Tite eventually left the team to manage the Brazilian national team, depriving Corinthians of the tactical mastermind that led the team to many glories in the last decade. Cristóvão Borges, his replacement, has struggled so far to deal with the supporters, and a win today is fundamental to consolidate his job and to keep Corinthians at the fight for a Libertadores spot.
After an average Brasileirão and a Copa do Brasil title in 2015, Marcelo Oliveira was sacked by Palmeiras. The club hired Cuca in March and the team went on a three-match losing streak against minnows from its own state. Cuca was unable to save the team from an early elimination in the Libertadores. However, his team's performance improved drastically when the Brasileirão started and Palmeiras has led the tournament for seven matchweeks straight as of now. However, Flamengo and Atlético Mineiro are catching up, and a victory today is essential to maintain the team's status as the frontrunner in the title race.

Who should I watch out for?

On Palmeiras' side, Dudu seems to have found himself at Palmeiras. After three seasons in Dynamo Kiev, he came back to Brazil and, at Palmeiras, the supporters have taken a fancy to him. Lucas Barrios, after being the Bundesliga top scorer for Borussia Dortmund in 2010, arrived at Palmeiras in 2015. The Paraguayan attacker is eager to consolidate his place under Cuca, who has favoured Gabriel Jesus. On Corinthians' side, Cássio is one of the few left from the Libertadores winning side of 2011. With 248 appearances, he's consolidated himself as one of the cornerstones of the team. Marlone was one of this year's signings, after good performances for Sport Recife. He's found his place on Cristóvão Borges' starting XI, having scored on the last two matches.

OK, you have convinced me. How can I watch this match?

The full list of which broadcasters have the rights to the tournament can be found on Wikipedia. I have no idea on which one will actually air this game and how to tune in to them, though.
If you don't mind the Brazilian narration (actually, that's one of the highlights — no Brazilian match is complete without the loud "GOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOL" shout after every goal) you can always watch it through a stream. RojaDirecta is my personal favourite. BrasilSports will also have it, most certainly.
Also, I'm pretty certain that someone will be kind enough to create a match thread here.
submitted by CruzeiroDoSul to soccer [link] [comments]


2016.07.14 20:59 FreeCandyVanDriver A Definitive History of Naming Conventions

Hey folks -
It's been a while since I've posted some cool information on here, and I figured you all might enjoy a little history of football. I posted this in /MLS and /soccer, but since Minnesota United is one of my two teams (when I'm stateside I support my local team, when I'm in England or even further abroad I support Burton Albion,) I figured that I should share the love of soccer history with you.
Seeing as I still get PM's almost daily after originally posting up my History of Naming Conventions at Christmas last year, I figured it was high time to redo the post and try to clean it up a fair bit. Since some of you remember the post well enough to PM me questions even now, You might realize that I have added even more new information as well as cleaning it up and properly sorting the information. Enjoy the all-new "History of Naming Conventions..."

History Of Naming Conventions

While many fans understand that clubs have differing naming conventions, such as Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday, and Sheffield F.C., many fans have absolutely no idea what those specific conventions imply. I'm here to set the record straight on why your club is named why it is. But let's start with the basics first, like Sheffield F.C., and work our way up.

The Basics: “F.C.”

“F.C.” Stands for “Football Club.” From the outset, Sheffield F.C. used the term “F.C.” to differentiate it from the other sports club in Sheffield at the time – the rugby club named simply “Sheffield.”
Since football was a brand new thing, the club adopted the “F.C.” to simply allow the locals to know that it wasn't the rugby team – it was the other club in town.
And since rugby clubs had sprouted up all over England long before the game we know as "modern" football became popular, almost every new football club took the naming convention of “F.C.”
At this point, you might be asking yourself, “Why 'club' though?” At that time, all sporting groups were “clubs,” as it was seen as more of a hobby than a profession or a business.
So you might be thinking “Okay, but what about A.F.C.?” Simple: the founding of football did not coincide with a codified set of rules. At the time, several set of rules were around, including “Sheffield Rules” and the familiar “Association Football Rules”. In cities that had a club that played under Sheffield Rules were names “F.C.” and another club that played under Association Football Rules, that club would take the “A.F.C.” convention. “A.F.C.” disappeared for the most part as most teams played under the Association Football Rules by the end of the 19th century, although some teams have kept their old name still to this day.
That's how the whole “F.C.” started.
But what about all of the others? Where did they come from? Why is there teams that use the term “Old Boys”? The following list will go through damn near each and every variation.
Before we do that, however, it pays to remember that the “rules” behind each naming convention are not always 100% for each and every club. Some clubs have just chosen to use the naming convention for the sound of it. Others have used it because it helped with marketing. And who knows why they chose 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig for a name – well, I know why, and you are about to.
We're breaking this down into two separate parts, Initials and Words, that way you can look up information substantially easier.

The List of Naming Conventions:

The Important Ones:

These two form the basis of most club structures - and will be referenced throughout the massive list below. Understanding these two will make your life easier when reading through the list.
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
F.C. Football Club Worldwide F.C. is used by many teams throughout the world and is simply to brand the team as a football club. Historically used to differentiate between football and rugby clubs playing in the same town, the naming convention became the most commonly used in football, with many variations based on local language spelling the words "Football Club" Sheffield F.C. (England)
S.C. (1) Sports Club Worldwide S.C. is used by teams throughout the world where the founding of the team originated from an organized group of individuals in other to provide structure to activities. Oftentimes it's a youth organization. The use of S.C. implies that the organization running the clubs have clubs in more than one sport. S.C. is important to note as many teams throughout the world will have initials that translate into this specific definition in English. Simba S.C. (Tanzania)

The Initials:

(This is set up in alphabetical order, minus the first two entries, which are deemed important enough that you need to know them before others as they are referenced frequently throughout the list.)
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
AA Atletiek Associatie Low Countries Dutch for "Atletiek Associatie" with the implied meaning behind the typical usage of "Sports Club". Traditionally, they offer teams and training in several sports beyond football AA Gent, now known as KAA Gent (Belgium)
A.C. Associazione Calcio Italy Used in Italian-speaking regions, “Associazione Calcio" translates into English as “Football Association” and is the Italian equivalent of “A.F.C.” A.C. Milan (Italy)
A.D. Asociación Deportiva or Agrupación Deportiva Spain, Latin America The Spanish-language version of “SA”, this translates roughly into Sports Association It's often found in Spanish speaking nations throughout the world, but particularly in Spain itself A.D. Isidro Metapán (El Salvador)
A.S. Association Sportive France, Africa Used primarily in French speaking nations, it translates as “Sports Association.” Many clubs use this both in France as well as former French colonies A.S. Douanes (Niger)
A.S.A. (1) Asociația Sportivă Armatei (various spellings) Eastern Europe This roughly translates into “Army Sports Association”, which implies that the club is run by the army, but is not always the case as clubs with A.S.A can be independently run. ASA București, now CSA Steaua București (Romania)
A.S.A. (2) Asociația Sportivă Ardealul Romania This translates into "Transylvania Sports Association", and found exclusively in Romania ASA 2013 Târgu Mureș (Romania)
A.S.D. Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Italy Roughly translates to "Amateur Sports Association”, and found exclusively in Italian-speaking communities. Usage denotes pure amateur clubs (either current or historical) and are often clubs run by the local municipalities. They offer programs from under-4 through Adult leagues. Not many are found near the top of the pyramid, but they form the basis of youth football clubs in Italy A.S.D. Sanremese (Italy)
B Boldklub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". As the single letter "B", it is found almost exclusively in Denmark, but has been used throughout Scandinavia. Vejle Boldklub, known as VB (Denmark)
B.K. Ballklubb (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". Found throughout Scandinavian nations and is fairly common. Rosenborg BK (Norway)
BSG Betriebssportgemeinschaft German speaking nations Translates as "Sports Associations" with the same connotations as "Sports Assications", these clubs also were almost always within the government control of the GDEast German government during the Cold War. Used to denote the Sports Branch of particular trade associations, such as Dynamo, Lokomotive, and Stahl BSG Wismut Aue, now FC Erzgebirge Aue (Germany)
BSV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, known as Borussia Dortmund (Germany)
BV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BV Cloppenburg Frauen (Germany)
C.A. Club Atlético or Clube Atlético Spain, Latin America Translates into “Athletic Club”, these clubs are usually privately owned teams that have an outreach program within the community. Several teams with C.A. do not, however, and have the name as a basis to show that it is sponsored by a private, members-only club. C.A. Progreso (Uruguay)
C.D. Club Deportivo Spain, Latin America This translates into “Sports Club” in English, and is used in the same manner. Club Deportivo Pacífico FC (Peru)
C.F. Club Football (various Spellings) Worldwide Found primarily in Spanish speaking nations, C.F. holds the same meaning as "Football Club." It is used in nations where the local language switches the order of words C.F. Monterrey (Mexico)
C.F.C. Cricket Football Club or Cricket & Football Club Worldwide Fairly rare, C.F.C is used either for teams comprised of cricket players or for a football club founded by a dedicated Cricket Club. These clubs are founded almost exclusively by British expats in major cities throughout the world. Genoa C.F.C. (Italy)
CSCA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Eastern Europe CSCA is a spelling variation of CSKA, see CSKA for details CSCA-Rapid Chişinău (Romania) - Rebranded as FC Steaua București
CSA Clubul Sportiv al Armatei Eastern Europe Translated as "Army Sports Club", this implies that the team is affiliated with the army, as well as fielding teams in multiple sports CSA Steaua București (Romania)
CSKA Central Army Sports Club Russian-speaking Soviet-Bloc Nations CSKA is a hold-over from the Soviet-Bloc era. There are several various spellings of the initials that mean "Central Army Sports Club", such as CSCA and CWKS. Traditionally, these teams were wholly-comprised of members of the Army, but several teams were known to pay players to “join the army” and gave out higher incomes than to the common athlete/soldiers. PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
CWKS Central Army Sports Club Poland In Poland, these teams were either comprised of Army players or were freestanding clubs that were merged with Army clubs but still run independently of the army structure. A variation of CSKA. CWKS Resovia Rzeszow (Poland)
DJK Deutsche Jugendkraft Germany Translated into "German Youth Power", these clubs typically have a traditional youth development component. These culbs are often founded to give their youth outreach players a place to play after they have come of age DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf (Germany)
E.C. Esporte Clube Brazil, Portugal This means "Sports Club" in Portuguese and are found exclusively in Portuguese-speaking nations, with most being found in Brazil. They serve the same role as a traditional community-based organization like Sport Clubs. Esporte Clube Bahia (Brazil)
F.B.C. Foot Ball Club South America Rarely used. Found in Peru almost exclusively, and most likely comes from the separating of the two syllables in "foot-ball" into two separate words when using "Football Club" as a part of the clubs name FBC Melgar (Peru)
FF (1) Fotbollförening (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as either "Football Club" or "Sports Club", depending on the club using it Malmö FF (Sweden)
FF (2) Fodsports forening (various spellings) Scandinavia Literally translated as "Foot Sport Association", these clubs are often the same as Sports Clubs, although a few offer only Football as a sport. Viborg Fodsports Forening, known as VFF (Denmark)
F.F.C. Frauline Football Club German speaking nations Used in locations where the local word for “Women's” starts with the letter “F,” often used by clubs in Germany. 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam (Germany)
F.K. Football Klub (various spellings) Worldwide Meaning "football Club", F.K. is used in nations where the word “Club” is started with the letter “K,” FK Dinamo-Rīnuži (Latvia)
GF Gymnastikforening Denmark Found almost exclusively in Denmark, the literal translation is "Gymnastics Association." These football clubs were founded by groups that already had a background in offering gymnastics programs AGF Aarhus (Denmark)
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung German speaking nations While not an exact translation, it's meaning is the same as Limited Liability Company. This indicates that the club is not publicly traded nor it is a community-owned club held in a trust. They are a privately-owned business in which the individual owners are not liable for debts incurred by the club itself Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH (Germany)
IF Idrottsförening Scandinavia Swedish for “Sports Association”, but is often used in the same way that we would imagine a “Sports Club” being used by English speakers. Djurgårdens IF (Sweden)
IFK Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Sweden, Finland Swedish for "Sporting Society Comrades,” clubs within the IFK are a part of an over-arching Scandinavian Youth organization. They trace their roots back more than 110 years and spread throughout Scandinavia. Currently the IFK's are still focused on multiple sports, and still exist in both Sweden and Finland. IFK Göteborg (Sweden)
IK Idræts Klub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translated into "Sports Club," it's use is more like a “S & C/Sports & Culture” club when it is used by teams in Denmark that are made up of players in the foreign diaspora. However, for teams that are not made up of foreign-born players, IK is used in the same fashion as “Sports Club.” Hobro IK (Denmark)
IL Idrettslag Norway Used almost exclusively in Norway, it translates into “Sports Club” with the same meaning implied. Flekkerøy IL (Norway)
J.K./JK Jimnastik Kulübü Turkey Translated into "gymnastics club", it's use indicates that the club itself has either a history of operating a Gymnastics club or is currently running one. In modern usage, these clubs are seen the same way as one sees the usage of "Sports Club" Beşiktaş J.K. (Turkey)
K Koninklijke Belgium Literally translates into "Royal". Any club with 50 years of continued existence can add "Koninklijke" to their name in Belgium. Has no bearing on the type of club. K. Lierse S.K. (Belgium)
KAA Koninklijke Atletiek Associatie Belgium, Low Countires Literally translates to "Royal Athletics Association", and is used in the same fashion as "Sports Club" is. These clubs started off as having "AA", as opposed to "KAA", as teams are allowed to add "Koninklijke" (Royal) to their club name after 50 years of continued existence K.A.A. Gent (Belgium)
K.S. Klub Sportowy Poland This directly translates into “Sports Club”, and has the same connotation and usage Piast Gliwice K.S. (Poland)
N.K. Nogometni klub Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Loosely translates into and is the equivalent to “Football Club”. common at both the upper-tier clubs and lower leagues NK Svoboda (Slovenia)
P.F.C. Professional Football Club Worldwide a rare usage, usually indicates a team that has had an amateur side in previous years or still maintains clubs in other sports with an amateur status. Also has found usage as former Government-run teams, such as army, taxation, or police clubs PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
R (1) Royal Worldwide Typically added to a club's name after either 50 years of existence or by royal decree via patronage. had no bearing on the organizational operations of the club R Antwerp F.C. (Belgium)
R (2) Regatta (various spellings) Worldwide While fairly rare, the usage of "R" within this context signifies a historical tie with a rowing or sailing club Botafogo R (Brazil)
RC (3) Racing/Racing Club (various spellings) Worldwide The usage of "Racing" and "Racing Club" does not necessarily imply anything, but several teams that use a variation of it have historical ties to Track & Field groups, while others have ties to horse racing and even racing various types of boats. It carries zero significance to how the club currently operates, however. RC Lens (France)
RB Rasenballsport Fantasyland This term is totally made up by Red Bull to circumvent branding rules in international competitions, yet they claim it's a legitimate term that translates into "Lawn Ball Sport". To any reasonable person, "RB" stands solely for the most crass modern marketing in football. RB Leipzig (Germany)
R.C.D. Real Club Deportivo Spain Translated into "Royal Sports Club," it implies a Sports Club with a royal charter. Implies the same as the term "Sports Club" RCD Mallorca (Spain)
S.A. Sports Association (various spellings) Worldwide These are found in many nations regardless of local language. S.A. may imply multiple teams being fielded - more than one football team, more than one gender, and even more than one sport. A deceptively vague term, and rarely used in English-speaking nations due to the lack of any defined meaning.
S.A.D. Sociedad Anónima Deportiva Spain, Spanish-speaking nations Loosely translated into "Limited Sports Society," this term that the club is a type of LLC. Operates in a similar fashion to GmbH clubs in German-speaking nations Sevilla Fútbol Club, S.A.D. (Spain)
S.C. (2) Soccer Club Worldwide Carries the same meaning as F.C., and it is used primarily in nations where the sport of football is referred to as soccer Columbus Crew SC (United States)
S.C. (3), S&C (4) Sports & Culture (various combinations) Mediterranean regions "Sports & Culture" is used by various club associations to include a community enrichment program as well as sports for both children and adults. N/A
S.D. Sociedad Deportiva Spain, Latin America Directly translates into "Sports Society," and carries the same implied meaning as "Sport Club" SD Ponferradina (Spain)
SE Sociedade Esportiva Brazil Portuguese for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. SE Palmeiras (Brazil)
SG Sportgemeinschaft German-speaking nations Translates into "Sports Association," and is most often used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SG Wattenscheid 09 (Germany)
S.K. (1) Spor Kulübü Turkey Directly translates into "Sports Club" and carries the same connotation. Galatasaray S.K. (Turkey)
S.K. (2) Sportsklubben (various spellings) Scandinavia, Worldwide Directly translates into "Sports Club," these clubs are not beholden to typical conventions. While they are frequently found in Scandinavia, they can be found throughout the world SK Brann (Norway)
SpVgg Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Translates into "Playing Association," these clubs are like other "Sports Clubs" but usually focus on non-gymnastic sports in addition to football. SpVgg Greuther Fürth (Germany)
S.S. Società Sportiva Italy, Malta Italian for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. Found in Italy to a very small extent, these are fairly common on the island of Malta. S.S. Lazio (Italy)
S.T. Soccer Team Worldwide The usage of Soccer Team is frequently found in English-speaking nations where football is referred to as soccer and often implies a youth development component. This is not always the case, as they are found in non-English speaking nations where the sport is referred to as Football. Bassano Virtus 55 S.T. (Italy)
SSC Società Sportiva Calcio Italy Translates as "Sporting and Football Society" and are considered to be clubs who offer several sports, with football being the focus S.S.C. Napoli (Italy)
S.V. Sportverein (various spellings) Low Countries, Germany Meaning “Sports Club" and used in the same context, S.V. teams are found throughout Western Europe, but mainly within the Low Countries and Germany Hannoversche Sportverein 1896 eV, known as Hannover 96 (Germany)
T.S.V. Turn- und Sportverein German-speaking nations This translates to “Gymnastic and Sporting Club," and is to be considered the same as "Sports Club" TSV 1860 München (Germany)
U.C. Unione Calcio Italian-speaking nations Translated directly into "Football Union", these clubs often gain the use of U.C. after a merger with another club. No other significance. U.C. Sampdoria (Italy)
U.S. Unione Sportiva Italian-speaking nations Meaning "Sporting Union," these clubs have been renamed after a merger with other groups. They typically offer other sports besides football. U.S. Sassuolo Calcio (Italy)
VfB Verein für Bewegungsspiele German-speaking nations Directly translated into "Club for Exercise games," these clubs are similar to "Sports Clubs" in that they offer other sports in addition to football, but often have a more dedicated push towards to those other sports compared to most "Sports Clubs" VfB Stuttgart (Germany)
VfL Verein für Leibesübungen German-speaking nations Literally translated as "Club for Body exercises," these clubs are often formed by clubs that focus on general overall fitness. There is a tradition of company-founded "VfL" clubs for its workers VfL Wolfsburg (Germany)
VfR Verein für Rasensport German-speaking nations Translates into "Club for Lawnsports," these clubs are more like your traditions "Sports Club" in their offering of other sporting activities VfR Aalen 1921 (Germany)
VV Voetbal Vereniging Low Countries Translates into "Football Association" and carries the same meaning as "Sports Club" VV Steenbergen (Holland)
The Numbers:
Occasionally, you will find numbers within the both the full and proper name of a club as well as the commonly used name for the club. Below is a description on what they mean:
Number Structure Meaning
XXXX - four digits Found throughout the world, this number is almost always the founding year of the club. An example of this is TSV 1860 München.
XX - two digits Found throughout the world, this is the last two numbers in the given century of their founding. Bayer 04 Leverkusen is a popular example of this.
1. - as a precursor Found primarily in Europe, the “1.” in front of the club's name indicates that that club was the first club founded in a city. It's a source of pride for these clubs, and is still used to this day, primarily in Germany. An example of this would be 1. FC Lübars.
The Words:
This section focuses on words that you'll often see in names of several clubs. These words may be to help differentiate between clubs from the same city, they may be tied to their history, their formation, who founded the clubs, or even professional versus amateur status. Like the initials, these rules are not always 100% true, and are to used as guides to help understand the history behind the name for the most teams possible. Yes, there are exceptions to possibly all of these, but the exceptions are much less frequent thean the rule - hence using exceptions.
Word Purpose
Academia (various spellings) Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the world.
Alemannia or Germania An old name for Germany.
Ajax A reference from Greek mythology. Some clubs in Africa and the Americas with the name are affiliated with Ajax of Holland.
Albion A very old name for Great Britain. Used to denote a specific team in a community with more than one club. UK only.
Apollon A reference to the Greek god Apollo. No other significance.
Arsenal Used throughout Europe, these clubs have a traditional association with Weapons manufacturing.
Astra or Asteras Greek for "star," used all over Europe.
Atlas Usually a reference to Greek mythology, occasionally a reference to the mountain range by that name. No other significance.
Athletic Just a general term if used without any other modifier. Found everywhere.
Borussia Latin for Prussia, used by clubs in Germany
Brown A reference to Guillermo Brown/William Brown, an Irish/Argentinian Sea Captain. Argentina only.
Calcio Italian for "football," no special significance if used without another modifier.
Casuals Often used to denote a club's "amateur" status.
Celtic These are clubs that are often founded by members of the Celtic Diaspora and are found throughout the world.
Chernomorets Russian name for the Black Sea, no special significance. Used in Russian-speaking areas.
City Usage of this denotes that the club represents a specific city, and is used to identify a specific club within a city of multiple clubs. Also denotes clubs that are a part of the “City Football Group” - Manchester, Melbourne, and New York City.
Collieries Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily England.
Corinthians References the town of Corinth in Greece, and is often used to allude to the Corinthian ideal of amateurism in sports. Also used to denote an "amateur" club.
Cosmos Short for Cosmopolitan, represents the ideal of multiculturalism. No other significance.
Days (Specific days of the week) Used to specify specific clubs in communities with more than one club. An example is Sheffield Wednesday (which came from the original Cricket club's name)
Douanes Clubs that are supported by National Customs and Taxation departments. Found in French speaking nations.
Dutch Lions These are clubs owned by the Dutch club F.C. Twente, found only in the U.S.A.
Dynamo (various spellings) These clubs were originally a part of the “Dynamo” Sport society, founded by the Soviets in the early 20th century. Often attached to the Department of Interior Security.
En Avant French for “forward,” no other significance.
Eintracht German for "united," no other significance.
Español Simply refers to the country of Spain, although it has been used by members of the Spanish diaspora.
Espoir or Espérance) French for "hope," no other significance. French Speaking nations only.
Estudiantes Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
Excelsior Means “higher”, no other significance
Gimnasia (various spellings) Implying Gymnastics. These clubs often have ties with Gymnastics clubs or groups.
Górnik Sometimes abbreviated as GKS, these are clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Poland.
Hapoel An Israeli sporting association that can links to various trades unions. Often left-leaning historically. Israel only.
Hibernian These are clubs that are traditionally founded by members of the Irish Diaspora and are found throughout Scotland, Malta and in Ireland itself.
Inter or International Denotes clubs that are founded by either immigrants to their location or are using the term to identify themselves differently from other clubs, sometimes by way of splinter groups forming their own club.
Ittihad Arabic for “union,” with the implied meaning of “United” in English.
Juve (also: Juventus, Jeunesse, Juniors, Youth) A reference to youth, no other significance.
Lokomotiv (various spellings) Clubs founded by Railways or railway workers, these clubs can be found throughout the world. Most are professional, but some still have actual railroad workers on their rosters.
Maccabi A reference to the Maccabi sports society of Israel. Found in several nations with large, Jewish populations. Often affiliated with youth sports.
Metallurg Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Usually Russian-speaking nations with this spelling.
Metalurh Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Ukrainian clubs with this spelling.
Mineros Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Spanish-speaking South American nations.
Mohammedan Denotes clubs founded in the principles of the Muslim faith, usually as youth outreach groups. Found everywhere.
Nacional (various spellings) Means “national”, but usually denotes nothing. Occasionally used for teams of the army, but more often used to identify specific teams in larger markets. Used everywhere.
Old Boys Clubs that were founded to provide football at an age past school age for a particular school.
Olympic (various spellings) References the Olympic Games, but bears no other significance.
Petrolero Clubs that have were founded by either workers in the Petrol/Oil industry or by the companies themselves. Found throughout the petrol/oil producing world.
Police (various spellings) Clubs that have an affiliation with governmental policing groups. Often consist of active members of the police force, but some do have professional footballs within their ranks.
Politehnica Clubs with ties to a specific university. Found primarily in Eastern Europe.
Preußen German for "Prussia," no other significance.
Racing References a historical relationship with racing - either Track & Field events, rowing, sailing, or even horse racing. Oftentimes, these clubs used the middle of the racing oval as their original home ground.
Real Spanish for “Royal”, these clubs have the direct patronage of the Spanish Monarchy. Found is Spanish speaking nations. Excludes Real Salt Lake of the MLS.
Red Bull Found throughout the world, these are clubs that are not only sponsored by the Red Bull Energy Drink company, they are often founded by them. Most people detest the names, even their own fans.
Regatas (various spelling) Often used to denote clubs that have an association with either rowing or sailing, these are mainly found in Brazil.
Rio Branco A reference to José Paranhos, His Excellency The Baron of Rio Branco. The Godfather of Brazilian diplomacy. Found only in Brazil.
Rovers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found primarily in the British Isles.
Royal A word that Belgian clubs can use after 50 years of continuous existence. Can use the German, French, Dutch or English version of the the word.
Ruch Meaning “forward” in Polish. No other significance.
Santos (or San) It's the Spanish and Portuguese word for “Saint” (or “St.”), but it doesn't mean imply anything specific.
Shamrock A national symbol of Ireland, used in both Ireland and the U.S.A. No other significance.
Slavia Just refers to the Slavic people, Found in Eastern Europe and supported by men in matching tracksuits squatting on the sidelines.
Sparta Referencing the Greek town of Sparta, but has no special significance.
Spartak A reference to Spartacus, the slave-turned-leader of a revolt almost two thousand years ago. Found throughout Eastern Europe and Russia.
-spor (ending of a name) Means “sport,” and is found in Turkey.
Sporting This implies that the club is a part of a larger group of teams in various sports. If a club uses the name “Sporting”, it is the name of the overarching group for all the teams in all of the sports that it participates in.
Staal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Norwegian with this spelling.
Stade The French word for “stadium.” These clubs are often named after their original home ground.
Stahl Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily German with this spelling.
Stal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Eastern European with this spelling.
Swifts The plural for Swift, a type of bird. No other significance.
Thistle A national symbol of Scotland. No other significance.
Torpedo A reference to the Soviet Volunteer Sports Society, indicates a historical tie to Russia.
United (various spelling) Outside of England, this is indicative of clubs that were founded by the merger of two or more clubs. Sometimes this is used to denote a different club if more than one exist within the same community. Found everywhere.
Universidad (various spellings) Clubs that have ties, usually founding ties, to a University. These are found throughout the world.
Wandereres This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found throughout the world, but primarily English-speaking nations.
Welfare A reference to the “Well-being” movement of the early 1900's. These clubs are usually small and community-based. Mainly in England.
Wolves Just implies the animal, no other significance.
Young Boys Clubs with ties to a local school, often used to differentiate between multiple clubs.
Zagłębie Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Only in Poland.
Zenit A reference indicating that the club was once a part of the Zenit Soviet Sports Society or an alliance with the Zenit itself.
So, now you know what "1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig" means. It's the first football club founded in Leipzeg and it was started by the railway company for their workers. Pretty fucking cool, huh?
IF you have any comments, questions, or just want to point out an exception to the rule, feel free!
-FCVD
submitted by FreeCandyVanDriver to minnesotaunited [link] [comments]


2016.07.14 19:50 FreeCandyVanDriver A History of Naming Conventions (Redux)

It's back - the History of Naming Conventions..and this time, it's bigger, more detailed, and even sorted alphabetically.
Seeing as I still get PM's almost daily after originally posting up my History of Naming Conventions at Christmas last year, I figured it was high time to redo the post and try to clean it up a fair bit. Since some of you remember the post well enough to PM me questions even now, You might realize that I have added even more new information as well as cleaning it up and properly sorting the information. Enjoy the all-new "History of Naming Conventions..."

History Of Naming Conventions

While many fans understand that clubs have differing naming conventions, such as Sheffield United, Sheffield Wednesday, and Sheffield F.C., many fans have absolutely no idea what those specific conventions imply. I'm here to set the record straight on why your club is named why it is. But let's start with the basics first, like Sheffield F.C., and work our way up.

The Basics: “F.C.”

“F.C.” Stands for “Football Club.” From the outset, Sheffield F.C. used the term “F.C.” to differentiate it from the other sports club in Sheffield at the time – the rugby club named simply “Sheffield.”
Since football was a brand new thing, the club adopted the “F.C.” to simply allow the locals to know that it wasn't the rugby team – it was the other club in town.
And since rugby clubs had sprouted up all over England long before the game we know as "modern" football became popular, almost every new football club took the naming convention of “F.C.”
At this point, you might be asking yourself, “Why 'club' though?” At that time, all sporting groups were “clubs,” as it was seen as more of a hobby than a profession or a business.
So you might be thinking “Okay, but what about A.F.C.?” Simple: the founding of football did not coincide with a codified set of rules. At the time, several set of rules were around, including “Sheffield Rules” and the familiar “Association Football Rules”. In cities that had a club that played under Sheffield Rules were names “F.C.” and another club that played under Association Football Rules, that club would take the “A.F.C.” convention. “A.F.C.” disappeared for the most part as most teams played under the Association Football Rules by the end of the 19th century, although some teams have kept their old name still to this day.
That's how the whole “F.C.” started.
But what about all of the others? Where did they come from? Why is there teams that use the term “Old Boys”? The following list will go through damn near each and every variation.
Before we do that, however, it pays to remember that the “rules” behind each naming convention are not always 100% for each and every club. Some clubs have just chosen to use the naming convention for the sound of it. Others have used it because it helped with marketing. And who knows why they chose 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig for a name – well, I know why, and you are about to.
We're breaking this down into two separate parts, Initials and Words, that way you can look up information substantially easier.

The List of Naming Conventions:

The Important Ones:

These two form the basis of most club structures - and will be referenced throughout the massive list below. Understanding these two will make your life easier when reading through the list.
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
F.C. Football Club Worldwide F.C. is used by many teams throughout the world and is simply to brand the team as a football club. Historically used to differentiate between football and rugby clubs playing in the same town, the naming convention became the most commonly used in football, with many variations based on local language spelling the words "Football Club" Sheffield F.C. (England)
S.C. (1) Sports Club Worldwide S.C. is used by teams throughout the world where the founding of the team originated from an organized group of individuals in other to provide structure to activities. Oftentimes it's a youth organization. The use of S.C. implies that the organization running the clubs have clubs in more than one sport. S.C. is important to note as many teams throughout the world will have initials that translate into this specific definition in English. Simba S.C. (Tanzania)

The Initials:

(This is set up in alphabetical order, minus the first two entries, which are deemed important enough that you need to know them before others as they are referenced frequently throughout the list.)
Initials Fully Expanded Location Translation & Meaning Example Club & Nation
AA Atletiek Associatie Low Countries Dutch for "Atletiek Associatie" with the implied meaning behind the typical usage of "Sports Club". Traditionally, they offer teams and training in several sports beyond football AA Gent, now known as KAA Gent (Belgium)
A.C. Associazione Calcio Italy Used in Italian-speaking regions, “Associazione Calcio" translates into English as “Football Association” and is the Italian equivalent of “A.F.C.” A.C. Milan (Italy)
A.D. Asociación Deportiva or Agrupación Deportiva Spain, Latin America The Spanish-language version of “SA”, this translates roughly into Sports Association It's often found in Spanish speaking nations throughout the world, but particularly in Spain itself A.D. Isidro Metapán (El Salvador)
A.S. Association Sportive France, Africa Used primarily in French speaking nations, it translates as “Sports Association.” Many clubs use this both in France as well as former French colonies A.S. Douanes (Niger)
A.S.A. (1) Asociația Sportivă Armatei (various spellings) Eastern Europe This roughly translates into “Army Sports Association”, which implies that the club is run by the army, but is not always the case as clubs with A.S.A can be independently run. ASA București, now CSA Steaua București (Romania)
A.S.A. (2) Asociația Sportivă Ardealul Romania This translates into "Transylvania Sports Association", and found exclusively in Romania ASA 2013 Târgu Mureș (Romania)
A.S.D. Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica Italy Roughly translates to "Amateur Sports Association”, and found exclusively in Italian-speaking communities. Usage denotes pure amateur clubs (either current or historical) and are often clubs run by the local municipalities. They offer programs from under-4 through Adult leagues. Not many are found near the top of the pyramid, but they form the basis of youth football clubs in Italy A.S.D. Sanremese (Italy)
B Boldklub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". As the single letter "B", it is found almost exclusively in Denmark, but has been used throughout Scandinavia. Vejle Boldklub, known as VB (Denmark)
B.K. Ballklubb (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Ball Club", with the same implied connotations as "Football Club". Found throughout Scandinavian nations and is fairly common. Rosenborg BK (Norway)
BSG Betriebssportgemeinschaft German speaking nations Translates as "Sports Associations" with the same connotations as "Sports Assications", these clubs also were almost always within the government control of the GDEast German government during the Cold War. Used to denote the Sports Branch of particular trade associations, such as Dynamo, Lokomotive, and Stahl BSG Wismut Aue, now FC Erzgebirge Aue (Germany)
BSV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e.V. Dortmund, known as Borussia Dortmund (Germany)
BV Ballsportverein or Ballspielverein German speaking nations Translates into "Ball Sports Club" and used in the same context as "Sports Club" they are often found to maintain clubs in multiple sports, and often have programs for youth, men and women. BV Cloppenburg Frauen (Germany)
C.A. Club Atlético or Clube Atlético Spain, Latin America Translates into “Athletic Club”, these clubs are usually privately owned teams that have an outreach program within the community. Several teams with C.A. do not, however, and have the name as a basis to show that it is sponsored by a private, members-only club. C.A. Progreso (Uruguay)
C.D. Club Deportivo Spain, Latin America This translates into “Sports Club” in English, and is used in the same manner. Club Deportivo Pacífico FC (Peru)
C.F. Club Football (various Spellings) Worldwide Found primarily in Spanish speaking nations, C.F. holds the same meaning as "Football Club." It is used in nations where the local language switches the order of words C.F. Monterrey (Mexico)
C.F.C. Cricket Football Club or Cricket & Football Club Worldwide Fairly rare, C.F.C is used either for teams comprised of cricket players or for a football club founded by a dedicated Cricket Club. These clubs are founded almost exclusively by British expats in major cities throughout the world. Genoa C.F.C. (Italy)
CSCA Central Army Sports Club Soviet-Bloc Eastern Europe CSCA is a spelling variation of CSKA, see CSKA for details CSCA-Rapid Chişinău (Romania) - Rebranded as FC Steaua București
CSA Clubul Sportiv al Armatei Eastern Europe Translated as "Army Sports Club", this implies that the team is affiliated with the army, as well as fielding teams in multiple sports CSA Steaua București (Romania)
CSKA Central Army Sports Club Russian-speaking Soviet-Bloc Nations CSKA is a hold-over from the Soviet-Bloc era. There are several various spellings of the initials that mean "Central Army Sports Club", such as CSCA and CWKS. Traditionally, these teams were wholly-comprised of members of the Army, but several teams were known to pay players to “join the army” and gave out higher incomes than to the common athlete/soldiers. PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
CWKS Central Army Sports Club Poland In Poland, these teams were either comprised of Army players or were freestanding clubs that were merged with Army clubs but still run independently of the army structure. A variation of CSKA. CWKS Resovia Rzeszow (Poland)
DJK Deutsche Jugendkraft Germany Translated into "German Youth Power", these clubs typically have a traditional youth development component. These culbs are often founded to give their youth outreach players a place to play after they have come of age DJK Agon 08 Düsseldorf (Germany)
E.C. Esporte Clube Brazil, Portugal This means "Sports Club" in Portuguese and are found exclusively in Portuguese-speaking nations, with most being found in Brazil. They serve the same role as a traditional community-based organization like Sport Clubs. Esporte Clube Bahia (Brazil)
F.B.C. Foot Ball Club South America Rarely used. Found in Peru almost exclusively, and most likely comes from the separating of the two syllables in "foot-ball" into two separate words when using "Football Club" as a part of the clubs name FBC Melgar (Peru)
FF (1) Fotbollförening (various spellings) Scandinavia Translates into "Football Association", it carries the same meaning as either "Football Club" or "Sports Club", depending on the club using it Malmö FF (Sweden)
FF (2) Fodsports forening (various spellings) Scandinavia Literally translated as "Foot Sport Association", these clubs are often the same as Sports Clubs, although a few offer only Football as a sport. Viborg Fodsports Forening, known as VFF (Denmark)
F.F.C. Frauline Football Club German speaking nations Used in locations where the local word for “Women's” starts with the letter “F,” often used by clubs in Germany. 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam (Germany)
F.K. Football Klub (various spellings) Worldwide Meaning "football Club", F.K. is used in nations where the word “Club” is started with the letter “K,” FK Dinamo-Rīnuži (Latvia)
GF Gymnastikforening Denmark Found almost exclusively in Denmark, the literal translation is "Gymnastics Association." These football clubs were founded by groups that already had a background in offering gymnastics programs AGF Aarhus (Denmark)
GmbH Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung German speaking nations While not an exact translation, it's meaning is the same as Limited Liability Company. This indicates that the club is not publicly traded nor it is a community-owned club held in a trust. They are a privately-owned business in which the individual owners are not liable for debts incurred by the club itself Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH (Germany)
IF Idrottsförening Scandinavia Swedish for “Sports Association”, but is often used in the same way that we would imagine a “Sports Club” being used by English speakers. Djurgårdens IF (Sweden)
IFK Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Sweden, Finland Swedish for "Sporting Society Comrades,” clubs within the IFK are a part of an over-arching Scandinavian Youth organization. They trace their roots back more than 110 years and spread throughout Scandinavia. Currently the IFK's are still focused on multiple sports, and still exist in both Sweden and Finland. IFK Göteborg (Sweden)
IK Idræts Klub (various spellings) Denmark, Scandinavia Translated into "Sports Club," it's use is more like a “S & C/Sports & Culture” club when it is used by teams in Denmark that are made up of players in the foreign diaspora. However, for teams that are not made up of foreign-born players, IK is used in the same fashion as “Sports Club.” Hobro IK (Denmark)
IL Idrettslag Norway Used almost exclusively in Norway, it translates into “Sports Club” with the same meaning implied. Flekkerøy IL (Norway)
J.K./JK Jimnastik Kulübü Turkey Translated into "gymnastics club", it's use indicates that the club itself has either a history of operating a Gymnastics club or is currently running one. In modern usage, these clubs are seen the same way as one sees the usage of "Sports Club" Beşiktaş J.K. (Turkey)
K Koninklijke Belgium Literally translates into "Royal". Any club with 50 years of continued existence can add "Koninklijke" to their name in Belgium. Has no bearing on the type of club. K. Lierse S.K. (Belgium)
KAA Koninklijke Atletiek Associatie Belgium, Low Countires Literally translates to "Royal Athletics Association", and is used in the same fashion as "Sports Club" is. These clubs started off as having "AA", as opposed to "KAA", as teams are allowed to add "Koninklijke" (Royal) to their club name after 50 years of continued existence K.A.A. Gent (Belgium)
K.S. Klub Sportowy Poland This directly translates into “Sports Club”, and has the same connotation and usage Piast Gliwice K.S. (Poland)
N.K. Nogometni klub Croatia, former Yugoslavian nations Loosely translates into and is the equivalent to “Football Club”. common at both the upper-tier clubs and lower leagues NK Svoboda (Slovenia)
P.F.C. Professional Football Club Worldwide a rare usage, usually indicates a team that has had an amateur side in previous years or still maintains clubs in other sports with an amateur status. Also has found usage as former Government-run teams, such as army, taxation, or police clubs PFC CSKA Moscow (Russia)
R (1) Royal Worldwide Typically added to a club's name after either 50 years of existence or by royal decree via patronage. had no bearing on the organizational operations of the club R Antwerp F.C. (Belgium)
R (2) Regatta (various spellings) Worldwide While fairly rare, the usage of "R" within this context signifies a historical tie with a rowing or sailing club Botafogo R (Brazil)
RC (3) Racing/Racing Club (various spellings) Worldwide The usage of "Racing" and "Racing Club" does not necessarily imply anything, but several teams that use a variation of it have historical ties to Track & Field groups, while others have ties to horse racing and even racing various types of boats. It carries zero significance to how the club currently operates, however. RC Lens (France)
RB Rasenballsport Fantasyland This term is totally made up by Red Bull to circumvent branding rules in international competitions, yet they claim it's a legitimate term that translates into "Lawn Ball Sport". To any reasonable person, "RB" stands solely for the most crass modern marketing in football. RB Leipzig (Germany)
R.C.D. Real Club Deportivo Spain Translated into "Royal Sports Club," it implies a Sports Club with a royal charter. Implies the same as the term "Sports Club" RCD Mallorca (Spain)
S.A. Sports Association (various spellings) Worldwide These are found in many nations regardless of local language. S.A. may imply multiple teams being fielded - more than one football team, more than one gender, and even more than one sport. A deceptively vague term, and rarely used in English-speaking nations due to the lack of any defined meaning.
S.A.D. Sociedad Anónima Deportiva Spain, Spanish-speaking nations Loosely translated into "Limited Sports Society," this term that the club is a type of LLC. Operates in a similar fashion to GmbH clubs in German-speaking nations Sevilla Fútbol Club, S.A.D. (Spain)
S.C. (2) Soccer Club Worldwide Carries the same meaning as F.C., and it is used primarily in nations where the sport of football is referred to as soccer Columbus Crew SC (United States)
S.C. (3), S&C (4) Sports & Culture (various combinations) Mediterranean regions "Sports & Culture" is used by various club associations to include a community enrichment program as well as sports for both children and adults. N/A
S.D. Sociedad Deportiva Spain, Latin America Directly translates into "Sports Society," and carries the same implied meaning as "Sport Club" SD Ponferradina (Spain)
SE Sociedade Esportiva Brazil Portuguese for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. SE Palmeiras (Brazil)
SG Sportgemeinschaft German-speaking nations Translates into "Sports Association," and is most often used in the same manner as "Sports Club" SG Wattenscheid 09 (Germany)
S.K. (1) Spor Kulübü Turkey Directly translates into "Sports Club" and carries the same connotation. Galatasaray S.K. (Turkey)
S.K. (2) Sportsklubben (various spellings) Scandinavia, Worldwide Directly translates into "Sports Club," these clubs are not beholden to typical conventions. While they are frequently found in Scandinavia, they can be found throughout the world SK Brann (Norway)
SpVgg Spielvereinigung German-speaking nations Translates into "Playing Association," these clubs are like other "Sports Clubs" but usually focus on non-gymnastic sports in addition to football. SpVgg Greuther Fürth (Germany)
S.S. Società Sportiva Italy, Malta Italian for "Sports Society,” this is used in a general sense for a community-based club offering both Youth & Adult programs. Found in Italy to a very small extent, these are fairly common on the island of Malta. S.S. Lazio (Italy)
S.T. Soccer Team Worldwide The usage of Soccer Team is frequently found in English-speaking nations where football is referred to as soccer and often implies a youth development component. This is not always the case, as they are found in non-English speaking nations where the sport is referred to as Football. Bassano Virtus 55 S.T. (Italy)
SSC Società Sportiva Calcio Italy Translates as "Sporting and Football Society" and are considered to be clubs who offer several sports, with football being the focus S.S.C. Napoli (Italy)
S.V. Sportverein (various spellings) Low Countries, Germany Meaning “Sports Club" and used in the same context, S.V. teams are found throughout Western Europe, but mainly within the Low Countries and Germany Hannoversche Sportverein 1896 eV, known as Hannover 96 (Germany)
T.S.V. Turn- und Sportverein German-speaking nations This translates to “Gymnastic and Sporting Club," and is to be considered the same as "Sports Club" TSV 1860 München (Germany)
U.C. Unione Calcio Italian-speaking nations Translated directly into "Football Union", these clubs often gain the use of U.C. after a merger with another club. No other significance. U.C. Sampdoria (Italy)
U.S. Unione Sportiva Italian-speaking nations Meaning "Sporting Union," these clubs have been renamed after a merger with other groups. They typically offer other sports besides football. U.S. Sassuolo Calcio (Italy)
VfB Verein für Bewegungsspiele German-speaking nations Directly translated into "Club for Exercise games," these clubs are similar to "Sports Clubs" in that they offer other sports in addition to football, but often have a more dedicated push towards to those other sports compared to most "Sports Clubs" VfB Stuttgart (Germany)
VfL Verein für Leibesübungen German-speaking nations Literally translated as "Club for Body exercises," these clubs are often formed by clubs that focus on general overall fitness. There is a tradition of company-founded "VfL" clubs for its workers VfL Wolfsburg (Germany)
VfR Verein für Rasensport German-speaking nations Translates into "Club for Lawnsports," these clubs are more like your traditions "Sports Club" in their offering of other sporting activities VfR Aalen 1921 (Germany)
VV Voetbal Vereniging Low Countries Translates into "Football Association" and carries the same meaning as "Sports Club" VV Steenbergen (Holland)
The Numbers:
Occasionally, you will find numbers within the both the full and proper name of a club as well as the commonly used name for the club. Below is a description on what they mean:
Number Structure Meaning
XXXX - four digits Found throughout the world, this number is almost always the founding year of the club. An example of this is TSV 1860 München.
XX - two digits Found throughout the world, this is the last two numbers in the given century of their founding. Bayer 04 Leverkusen is a popular example of this.
1. - as a precursor Found primarily in Europe, the “1.” in front of the club's name indicates that that club was the first club founded in a city. It's a source of pride for these clubs, and is still used to this day, primarily in Germany. An example of this would be 1. FC Lübars.
The Words:
This section focuses on words that you'll often see in names of several clubs. These words may be to help differentiate between clubs from the same city, they may be tied to their history, their formation, who founded the clubs, or even professional versus amateur status. Like the initials, these rules are not always 100% true, and are to used as guides to help understand the history behind the name for the most teams possible. Yes, there are exceptions to possibly all of these, but the exceptions are much less frequent thean the rule - hence using exceptions.
Word Purpose
Academia (various spellings) Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the world.
Alemannia or Germania An old name for Germany.
Ajax A reference from Greek mythology. Some clubs in Africa and the Americas with the name are affiliated with Ajax of Holland.
Albion A very old name for Great Britain. Used to denote a specific team in a community with more than one club. UK only.
Apollon A reference to the Greek god Apollo. No other significance.
Arsenal Used throughout Europe, these clubs have a traditional association with Weapons manufacturing.
Astra or Asteras Greek for "star," used all over Europe.
Atlas Usually a reference to Greek mythology, occasionally a reference to the mountain range by that name. No other significance.
Athletic Just a general term if used without any other modifier. Found everywhere.
Borussia Latin for Prussia, used by clubs in Germany
Brown A reference to Guillermo Brown/William Brown, an Irish/Argentinian Sea Captain. Argentina only.
Calcio Italian for "football," no special significance if used without another modifier.
Casuals Often used to denote a club's "amateur" status.
Celtic These are clubs that are often founded by members of the Celtic Diaspora and are found throughout the world.
Chernomorets Russian name for the Black Sea, no special significance. Used in Russian-speaking areas.
City Usage of this denotes that the club represents a specific city, and is used to identify a specific club within a city of multiple clubs. Also denotes clubs that are a part of the “City Football Group” - Manchester, Melbourne, and New York City.
Collieries Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily England.
Corinthians References the town of Corinth in Greece, and is often used to allude to the Corinthian ideal of amateurism in sports. Also used to denote an "amateur" club.
Cosmos Short for Cosmopolitan, represents the ideal of multiculturalism. No other significance.
Days (Specific days of the week) Used to specify specific clubs in communities with more than one club. An example is Sheffield Wednesday (which came from the original Cricket club's name)
Douanes Clubs that are supported by National Customs and Taxation departments. Found in French speaking nations.
Dutch Lions These are clubs owned by the Dutch club F.C. Twente, found only in the U.S.A.
Dynamo (various spellings) These clubs were originally a part of the “Dynamo” Sport society, founded by the Soviets in the early 20th century. Often attached to the Department of Interior Security.
En Avant French for “forward,” no other significance.
Eintracht German for "united," no other significance.
Español Simply refers to the country of Spain, although it has been used by members of the Spanish diaspora.
Espoir or Espérance) French for "hope," no other significance. French Speaking nations only.
Estudiantes Clubs that have historical ties to universities. Found throughout the Spanish-speaking world.
Excelsior Means “higher”, no other significance
Gimnasia (various spellings) Implying Gymnastics. These clubs often have ties with Gymnastics clubs or groups.
Górnik Sometimes abbreviated as GKS, these are clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Poland.
Hapoel An Israeli sporting association that can links to various trades unions. Often left-leaning historically. Israel only.
Hibernian These are clubs that are traditionally founded by members of the Irish Diaspora and are found throughout Scotland, Malta and in Ireland itself.
Inter or International Denotes clubs that are founded by either immigrants to their location or are using the term to identify themselves differently from other clubs, sometimes by way of splinter groups forming their own club.
Ittihad Arabic for “union,” with the implied meaning of “United” in English.
Juve (also: Juventus, Jeunesse, Juniors, Youth) A reference to youth, no other significance.
Lokomotiv (various spellings) Clubs founded by Railways or railway workers, these clubs can be found throughout the world. Most are professional, but some still have actual railroad workers on their rosters.
Maccabi A reference to the Maccabi sports society of Israel. Found in several nations with large, Jewish populations. Often affiliated with youth sports.
Metallurg Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Usually Russian-speaking nations with this spelling.
Metalurh Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Ukrainian clubs with this spelling.
Mineros Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Primarily found in Spanish-speaking South American nations.
Mohammedan Denotes clubs founded in the principles of the Muslim faith, usually as youth outreach groups. Found everywhere.
Nacional (various spellings) Means “national”, but usually denotes nothing. Occasionally used for teams of the army, but more often used to identify specific teams in larger markets. Used everywhere.
Old Boys Clubs that were founded to provide football at an age past school age for a particular school.
Olympic (various spellings) References the Olympic Games, but bears no other significance.
Petrolero Clubs that have were founded by either workers in the Petrol/Oil industry or by the companies themselves. Found throughout the petrol/oil producing world.
Police (various spellings) Clubs that have an affiliation with governmental policing groups. Often consist of active members of the police force, but some do have professional footballs within their ranks.
Politehnica Clubs with ties to a specific university. Found primarily in Eastern Europe.
Preußen German for "Prussia," no other significance.
Racing References a historical relationship with racing - either Track & Field events, rowing, sailing, or even horse racing. Oftentimes, these clubs used the middle of the racing oval as their original home ground.
Real Spanish for “Royal”, these clubs have the direct patronage of the Spanish Monarchy. Found is Spanish speaking nations. Excludes Real Salt Lake of the MLS.
Red Bull Found throughout the world, these are clubs that are not only sponsored by the Red Bull Energy Drink company, they are often founded by them. Most people detest the names, even their own fans.
Regatas (various spelling) Often used to denote clubs that have an association with either rowing or sailing, these are mainly found in Brazil.
Rio Branco A reference to José Paranhos, His Excellency The Baron of Rio Branco. The Godfather of Brazilian diplomacy. Found only in Brazil.
Rovers This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found primarily in the British Isles.
Royal A word that Belgian clubs can use after 50 years of continuous existence. Can use the German, French, Dutch or English version of the the word.
Ruch Meaning “forward” in Polish. No other significance.
Santos (or San) It's the Spanish and Portuguese word for “Saint” (or “St.”), but it doesn't mean imply anything specific.
Shamrock A national symbol of Ireland, used in both Ireland and the U.S.A. No other significance.
Slavia Just refers to the Slavic people, Found in Eastern Europe and supported by men in matching tracksuits squatting on the sidelines.
Sparta Referencing the Greek town of Sparta, but has no special significance.
Spartak A reference to Spartacus, the slave-turned-leader of a revolt almost two thousand years ago. Found throughout Eastern Europe and Russia.
-spor (ending of a name) Means “sport,” and is found in Turkey.
Sporting This implies that the club is a part of a larger group of teams in various sports. If a club uses the name “Sporting”, it is the name of the overarching group for all the teams in all of the sports that it participates in.
Staal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Norwegian with this spelling.
Stade The French word for “stadium.” These clubs are often named after their original home ground.
Stahl Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily German with this spelling.
Stal Clubs that have a history with steelworks, founded by a team consisting of players from the steelworks. Primarily Eastern European with this spelling.
Swifts The plural for Swift, a type of bird. No other significance.
Thistle A national symbol of Scotland. No other significance.
Torpedo A reference to the Soviet Volunteer Sports Society, indicates a historical tie to Russia.
United (various spelling) Outside of England, this is indicative of clubs that were founded by the merger of two or more clubs. Sometimes this is used to denote a different club if more than one exist within the same community. Found everywhere.
Universidad (various spellings) Clubs that have ties, usually founding ties, to a University. These are found throughout the world.
Wandereres This denotes a team that was founded without a specific home ground. They are found throughout the world, but primarily English-speaking nations.
Welfare A reference to the “Well-being” movement of the early 1900's. These clubs are usually small and community-based. Mainly in England.
Wolves Just implies the animal, no other significance.
Young Boys Clubs with ties to a local school, often used to differentiate between multiple clubs.
Zagłębie Clubs that were founded or supported by miners or mining companies. Only in Poland.
Zenit A reference indicating that the club was once a part of the Zenit Soviet Sports Society or an alliance with the Zenit itself.
So, now you know what "1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig" means. It's the first football club founded in Leipzeg and it was started by the railway company for their workers. Pretty fucking cool, huh?
IF you have any comments, questions, or just want to point out an exception to the rule, feel free!
-FCVD
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